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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    INVESTIGATION OF DISTINCTIVE MORPHO - PHYSIO AND BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN FENUGREEK (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) UNDER HEAVY METAL STRESS CONDITIONS 3780
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-10) SUSHMITA PARASAPPA HULLUR; Dr. RAJIV KUMAR; 2010121086
    Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, is a self-pollinated annual herb belonging to family fabaceae. Fenugreek is also used in medicine as a carminative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and also as tonic for gastric troubles, diabetes, leucorrhea etc. Human exposure to heavy metals comes mostly through edible vegetables, which account for around 90% of the overall intake, while the remaining 10% comes from skin contact and breathing of polluted dust. Because of the growing demand for food in recent decades, food safety has become a major public health concern in terms of human health. In this manner the chain of link gets established between heavy metals and contaminated food products and health risks associated with them. Since leafy vegetables have a tendency to accumulate relatively larger number of heavy metals, it is essential to have knowledge about their accumulation pattern and their toxic effects in relation to plant growth and metabolism. This study investigated the morpho-physiological and biochemical changes in fenugreek plant under heavy metal stress condition grown in both petri plate and polybag separately. Heavy metals like chromium, nickel and mercury were included in the study with different concentrations for both the experiments. Germination percentage, speed of germination, growth parameters (shoot length, root length, seedling length, seedling vigour index, fresh weight, dry weight, metal tolerance index), biochemical parameters (proline, chlorophyll, MDA, H2O2, Antioxidant activity, phenol content, MSI) and accumulation of heavy metals, were analysed to evaluate the performance of fenugreek under heavy metal stress condition. The impact of heavy metals on the morphological parameters of fenugreek seedlings cultivated in Petri plates was investigated. The findings highlighted that exposure to heavy metals led to a notable reduction in shoot length, root length, seedling length, and seedling vigour index when compared to the control group. Among the three metals studied, nickel demonstrated the mildest effects on seedling morphology. In contrast, chromium and mercury caused a substantial 25 to 50% decrease in the evaluated morphological parameters compared to the control. Remarkably, the concentration of 800 ppm chromium exhibited the most significant reduction in the mentioned parameters, establishing it as the most toxic level of chromium exposure. Dry weight was more affected than fresh weight, with 53-70% reductions in chromium and nickel, but less impact from mercury. Moisture content was least affected. The presented study delves into the impact of heavy metals on various morphological parameters of fenugreek plants cultivated in polybags. The findings revealed that the root length experienced a substantial reduction (32 to 41%) at higher metal concentrations compared to lower doses. Shoot length remained unaffected by certain concentrations of chromium and nickel, though mercury led to reduced growth. Leaf area was generally resilient to heavy metals, except for specific concentrations of chromium and mercury causing reductions. Heavy metal concentration detrimentally affected fresh weight, while dry weight exhibited a biphasic response, both positive and negative. Dry matter accumulation displayed a positive correlation with heavy metal concentration. Proline content showed a drastic increase (almost 100 %) under 400 ppm of nickel treatment. Chlorophyll content was more impacted by chromium and nickel than by mercury. H2O2 content was notably elevated in plants treated with higher chromium and nickel doses. Chromium-treated plants exhibited the highest MDA production, followed by mercury and nickel treatments. Nickel substantially affected membrane stability and phenolic content. Antioxidant activity was significantly heightened in chromium and nickel treatments compared to mercury. Metal accumulation increased with concentration, particularly in roots. Chromium showed the highest root accumulation, followed by nickel and mercury. Heavy metal remediation is a must activity to be followed to our secured future since the speed of urbanization and industrialization, which is the main cause, is surpassing even the speed of light. So, this idea of research needs a peak importance with respect to conservation of agricultural lands, maintenance of organic and healthy food habit and life style with less impacts. Innovations and discoveries in this thought can reduce the ill effects of heavy metals on human health, plants and soil micro flora and fauna
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF POLLINATION TIME AND CROSSING RATIO ON HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION OF AMERICAN COTTON [(Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. G.COT.HY. – 24 – BG – II] 3744
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) GUNDARIYA YASHKUMAR DINKARRAY; Dr. M. H. Sapovadiya; 2010121025
    The present investigation conducted at the Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during kharif 2022 with an aim to study the effect of pollination time and crossing ratio on seed yield per plant, its components and seed quality parameters of cotton cv. G.cot.Hy. – 24 BG – II (Gujarat Cotton Hybrid – 24). The experiment was laid out in field as per Randomized Block Design (Factorial) with three replications. The characters viz., number of crossed flowers per plant, number of crossed bolls retain per plant, boll set (%), boll weight (g), number of seeds per boll, total cotton seed weight per boll (g), seed yield per plant (g) and 100 seed weight (g) were recorded as field observations and analyzed. The laboratory study was carried out in the laboratory of Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The characters viz., seed germination (%), seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index 1 (length) and seedling vigour index II (mass) were recorded from the seeds harvested from different combinations of treatments evaluated in laboratory and analyzed as per the Completely Randomized Design (Factorial). The analysis of variance for seed yield per plant, its components and different seed quality parameters revealed that different pollination time and crossing ratio treatments manifested significant differences for seed yield per plant, its component traits and all the seed quality parameters studied. Mean squares due to interaction effects of pollination time and crossing ratio was found significant difference for seed yield per plant, its components and different seed quality parameters except for 100 seed weight. The experimental result revealed that irrespective of crossing ratio, the pollination carried out between 11:00 am to 1:00 pm (P3) recorded significantly the maximum crossed bolls retain per plant (17.60), boll set (76.57 %), boll weight (3.26 g), number of seed per boll (23.60), total cotton seed weight per boll (1.88 g), seed yield per plant (22.09 g) and 100 seed weight (7.47 g) and also seed quality parameters viz., highest seed germination (80.74 %), seedling length (9.72 cm), seedling dry weight (14.70 mg), seedling vigour index I (length) (791.60) and seedling vigour index II (mass) (1201.07). Irrespective of pollination time, the crossing ratio in which two female flower buds are pollinated by one male flower (C1) recorded significantly maximum number of crossed bolls retain per plant (16.14), boll set (80.43 %), boll weight (3.32 g), number of seeds per boll (23.59), total cotton seed weight per boll (1.98 g), seed yield per plant (19.95 g) and 100 seed weight (7.63 g) as well as seed quality parameters viz., highest seed germination (84.61 %), seedling length (10.73 cm), seedling dry weight (16.71 mg), seedling vigour index I (length) (910.14) and seedling vigour index II (mass) (1417.73). Among interaction effect of pollination time and crossing ratio, the treatment combination P3 x C1 (pollination performed between 11:00 am to 1:00 pm and two female flower buds are pollinated by one male flower) was noticed maximum number of crossed bolls retain per plant (18.34), boll set (81.26 %), boll weight (3.55 g), number of seeds per boll (24.64), total cotton seed weight per boll (2.27 g). seed yield per plant (24.23 g) and 100 seed weight (7.76 g) and also seed quality parameters recorded maximum seed germination (87.51 %), seedling length (12.08 cm), seedling dry weight (18.36 mg). seedling vigour index 1 (length) (1056.84) and seedling vigour index II (mass) (1607.30) Overall, looking to the result, it could be suggested that during the hybrid seed production programme of cotton cv. G.cot.Hy. – 24 – BG II under south saurashtra condition for getting higher seed yield and good quality seed, the hand pollination of emasculated flower buds should be carried out between 11:00 am to 1:00 pm and two female flower buds could be pollinated by one male flower as it leads to maximum boll set (%) along with higher boll weight (g), more seeds per boll and seed yield per boll as well as good germination per cent.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SEED PELLETING, PACKAGING MATERIALS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON DIRECT SEEDING, BULB YIELD, SEED LONGEVITY AND QUALITY IN ONION (Allium cepa L.) 3781
    (jau junagadh, 2023-10) SONDARVA JYOTIBEN RAMJIBHAI; Dr. J. B. PATEL; 1010119036
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of seed pelleting, packaging materials and storage conditions on direct seeding, bulb yield, seed longevity and quality in onion (Allium cepa L.)” was carried out, wherein one field experiment was conducted during rabi 2020-21 at the Sagdividi Farm, Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, while two laboratory experiments were carried out from summer 2020 and onwards at the Seed Testing Laboratory, Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. In first laboratory trial, effect of different seed pelleting treatments [P1: Raw seed (Absolute control), P2: Standard pellet (Control) (Carbendazim), P3: Thiamethoxam, P4: Seed priming + Standard pellet, P5: Nano nutrition (Zn & Fe), P6: Biostimulant mixture, P7: Biological (Bacillus spp.), P8: Micronutrients mixture 1 (Regular phosphorus, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) and P9: Micronutrients mixture 2 (Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum)] on onion seeds were evaluated under cold storage condition up to fourteen months (germination went below 70 % as per ISTA standards). After seed pelleting treatments, the seeds were stored in cold storage conditions and the observations on germination percentage, seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index I and seedling vigour index II were recorded at two months interval up to fourteen month of storage and were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design as per the method suggested by Panse and Sukhatme (1985). In field trial, the same 9 different seed pelleting treatments were evaluated with two different sowing methods (S1: Transplanting and S2: Direct seeding) for bulb yield and quality of onion. The characters viz., plant height at harvesting (cm), average leaf length (cm), number of leaves per plant, days to maturity, polar diameter (cm), equatorial diameter (cm), bulb size index (cm2 ), number of bulbs per plot, bulb yield per plot (kg), average bulb weight (g), splitters (%), marketable bulb yield (kg), bolting percentage per plot and TSS (%) were recorded and analyzed using Randomized Block Design (Factorial) as per the method suggested by Cochran and Cox (1957). In the third storage trial under laboratory condition, three different factors, storage conditions [S1: Ambient storage condition and S2: Cold storage condition (10 + 2°C)]; packaging materials (P1: Plastic storage box, P2: Air tight plastic container, P3: Abstract ii Alluminium foil bag and P4: Alluminium foil bag with vacuum packing) and seed treatments (T1: Control, T2: Neem seed kernel powder 5g/kg, T3: Sweet flag rhizome powder 5g/kg and T4: Black pepper powder 5g/kg) were evaluated. After giving the seed treatments, the seeds were packed in different packaging materials as per treatment combinations and stored in two different storage conditions and the observations viz., germination percentage, seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index I, seedling vigour index II and seed moisture content (%) were recorded at two months interval up to fourteen month of storage and the results were analyzed as per the method suggested by Cochran and Cox (1957). Among the seed pelleting treatments, seeds pelleted with micronutrient mixture 2 (P9: Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) recorded the maximum germination and vigour under cold storage condition, could be attributed to active materials present in micronutrient mixture which might synergistically interact with amino acids especially tryptophan to form IAA in germinating seeds resulting in enhancement in seedling growth. Direct seeding (S2) of seeds pelleted with micronutrient mixture 2 (P9: Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) recorded the highest marketable bulb yield with its yield contributing characters and quality characters with the lowest days to maturity and splitters in comparison to other treatment combinations. Seed pelleting with micronutrients not only improves the health and physiological quality of seeds by way of protecting the seeds from fungal and insect attack but also improves seed and soil relationships through enriching the Rhizosphere region of seed. Seed pelleting of tiny seeds like onion helps in precision sowing with added advantages of better establishment and increased productivity. Pelleted seeds reduced the seed rate in comparison to non-pelleted seed and it also helps in avoiding thinning and gap filling operations because of precision planting and uniform crop stand, resulted into higher marketable bulb yield as reflected in better bulb size in pelleted seeds than non pelleted seeds. Seeds packed in alluminium foil bag with vaccum packing after seed treatment with sweet flag rhizome powder @ 5g/kg seed and stored in cold storage condition recorded the highest germination percentage and vigour after fourteen month of storage period. This was mainly due to treating the seeds with compatible organics and it played an effective role in inhibiting the storage microflora with packing materials like alluminium foil bag with vaccum packing, which acted as moisture entry barriers. In storage trials, germination percentage and other quality parameters were decreased gradually with increased in storage period, while seed moisture content in the seeds were increased with increased in storage period; this was concluded that the quality of seed degraded in storage condition. In nut shell, it can be concluded that, seed pelleted with micronutrient mixture 2 (P9: Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) and stored in cold storage condition was found to be the best treatment gave good germination along with other seed quality parameters after fourteen month of storage. Onion seed packed in alluminium foil bag with vacuum packing after seed treatment with sweet flag rhizome powder @ 5g/kg seed and stored in cold storage condition was found to be the best treatment gave good germination along with other seed quality parameters after fourteen month of storage. Direct seeding of seeds pelleted with micronutrient mixture 2 (P9: Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) was found to the best treatment gave good field performance with increased bulb yield.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of apical pinching and growth retardants on seed yield and its quality parameter of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.) cv. GO-6 3599
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2022-09) Deshmukh Devyani Sunilbhai; Dr. C. A. Babariya
    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), known as “Lady’s finger” in English and “Bhindi” in Hindi belongs to family Malvaceae is one of the most important vegetable crops grown extensively throughout the country during summer and rainy season. The present investigation on “Effect of apical pinching and growth retardants on seed yield and its quality parameter of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.) cv. GO-6” was carried out in two parts (Part-A field experiments and Part-B laboratory experiments) with the objectives to study the effect of apical pinching on seed yield and its quality, to study the effect of growth retardant seed yield and its quality and to study the interaction effect of apical pinching and growth retardant on seed yield and seed quality.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IMPACT OF SEED PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES ON SEED YIELD, QUALITY AND STORABILITY IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) 3646
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-12) CHAUHAN KINNARY PREMJIBHAI; Dr. G. U. Kulkarni; 1010119003
    The present investigation entitled “Impact of seed production techniques on seed yield, quality and storability in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)” was carried out in three parts: field experiment I was conducted at the Sagdividi Farm, Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh; field experiment II was conducted at Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during Kharif 2020, and three laboratory experiment (two in Kharif 2020 and third in rabi 2020-21 and onwards) were carried out at the Seed Testing Laboratory, Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. Different dates of sowing (D1: last fortnight of July and D2: last fortnight of August), spacing (S1: 60 x 30 cm, S2: 60 x 45 cm, S3: 45 x 30 cm and S4: 45 x 45 cm), levels of nitrogen (N1: 150 kg/ha, N2: 175 kg/ha and N3: 125 kg/ha), apical pinching (P0: no pinching, P1: pinching at 20 DAS and P2: pinching at 30 DAS) and fruit picking (F0: no fruit picking, F1: one fruit picking, F2: two fruit picking, F3: three fruit picking and F4: four fruit picking) were evaluated in field condition (first trial) as well as in laboratory condition (second trial) for okra variety GO-6. In the third experiment (storage trial), seed treatments (S1: control (untreated seed), S2: Trichoderma @ 5g/kg seed, S3: Sweet flag @ 10 g/kg seed, S4: Castor oil @ 10 ml/kg seed, S5: Neem oil @ 10 ml/kg seed, S6: Neem powder @ 5g/kg seed and S7: Neem seed kernel extract) and containers (P1: Cloth bag and P2: Aluminium foil bag) were evaluated. In the field experiment, the characters viz., plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of nodes per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit length (cm), fruit girth (cm), dry weight of fruit (g), number of seeds per fruit, seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per hectare (kg), processed seed yield per hectare (kg) and seed recovery percentage were analyzed by Split-split Plot Design in experiment I and Randomized Block Design (Factorial) in experiment II as per the statistical procedure described by Cochran and Cox (1957). The characters viz., hundred seed weight, germination percentage, root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling length (cm), seedling fresh weight (mg), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour Index I (length), seedling vigour Index II (mass), seed moisture content (%) and electrical conductivity of seed leachates (dS/m) were recorded in the laboratory from the fresh seed collected from the field trial after harvesting as per the treatment combinations. In the third experiment, the observations were recorded at two Abstract ii months interval up to twelve months of storage. Laboratory observations were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (Factorial) as per the statistical procedure described by Cochran and Cox (1957). In the field performance, sowing done at last fortnight of July (D1) significantly recorded the maximum number of fruits per plant (12.17), fruit length (22.14 cm), fruit girth (3.67 cm), dry weight of fruit (6.88 g), seed yield per plant (61.07 g), seed yield per hectare (2651.11 kg), processed seed yield per hectare (1864.86 kg), seed recovery percentage (71.27 %), hundred seed weight (6.64 g), germination percentage (84.97 %), seedling length (20.13 cm), seedling fresh weight (251.94 mg), seedling dry weight (21.72 mg), seedling vigour index I (1712.75) and seedling vigour index II (1847.87). The spacing of (60 × 30 cm) (S1) recorded significantly the maximum number of fruits per plant (13.32), fruit length (23.10 cm), fruit girth (3.93 cm), dry weight of fruit (7.40 g), seed yield per plant (64.04 g), seed yield per hectare (3071.66 kg), processed seed yield per hectare (2288.62 kg), seed recovery percentage (75.60 %), hundred seed weight (6.81 g), germination percentage (85.50 %), seedling length (20.49 cm), seedling fresh weight (253.22 mg), seedling dry weight (22.21 mg), seedling vigour index-I (1754.72) and seedling vigour index-II (1901.05). Significantly, the maximum number of branches per plant (1.99), number of fruits per plant (11.72), seed yield per hectare (2445.19 kg), processed seed yield per hectare (1718.84 kg), hundred seed weight (6.81 g), germination percentage (84.50 %), seedling length (19.80 cm), seedling fresh weight (251.04 mg), seedling dry weight (21.39 mg), seedling vigour index-I (1676.13) and seedling vigour index-II (1810.66) were recorded maximum at nitrogen application of 175 kg/ha (N2). Apical pinching done at 20 days after sowing (P1) recorded the maximum number of branches per plant (3.39), fruit length (18.77 cm), fruit girth (4.45 cm), number of fruits per plant (14.28), dry weight of fruit (6.59 g), seed yield per plant (59.92 g), seed yield per hectare (2584.42 kg), processed seed yield per hectare (2531.93 kg), seed recovery percentage (75.42 %), seed germination (85.53 %), seedling length ((19.62 cm), seedling fresh weight (269.27 mg), seedling dry weight (23.94 mg), seedling vigour index I (1684.69) and seedling vigour index II (2052.56). Two fruit picking (F2) recorded maximum fruit length (19.64 cm), fruit girth (4.60 cm), dry weight of fruit (6.75 g), number of seeds per fruit (68.44), number of fruits per plant (13.91), seed yield per plant (63.45 g), seed yield per hectare (2525.03 kg), processed seed yield per hectare (2721.74 kg), hundred seed weight (6.62 g), germination percentage (88.22 %), seedling length (22.35 cm), seedling fresh weight (284.22 mg), seedling dry weight (25.05 mg), seedling vigour index-I (1973.07) and seedling vigour index-II (2210.88). In the storage condition, seeds of GO-6 treated with sweet flag @ 10g/kg seed and stored in aluminium foil bag recorded the maximum germination percentage (95.33 %), root length (8.10 cm), shoot length (13.83 cm), seedling fresh weight (288.67 mg), seedling dry weight (28.35 mg) and seedling vigour index II (2702.50) after twelve months of storage. Therefore, in nutshell, it can be concluded that, sowing done at last fortnight of July, with spacing of 60 × 30 cm and application of nitrogen at 175 kg/ha is optimum to get better growth, higher seed yield and quality in okra variety GO-6. The apical pinching done at 20 days after sowing coupled with two green fruit picking is better for getting higher seed yield with better quality. In storage, seeds treated with sweet flag @ 10g/kg seed and stored in aluminium foil bag was found to be the best treatment combination which gave good germination along with other seed quality parameters after twelve months of storage
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF PRIMING TO IMPROVE STORABILITY AND VIGOUR IN ONION SEED (Allium cepa L.) 3632
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) RATHOD YASHRAJSINH ANOPSINH; Dr. Rajiv Kumar; 2010120077
    A laboratory experiment was conducted in Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, JAU, Junagadh to study the “Effect of priming to improve storability and vigour in onion seed (Allium cepa L.)”. Seeds of two different varieties of red onion GJRO – 11 and Bhimashakti were subjected to priming treatments; Control, vermiwash 1:10 dilution, GA3 @ 100 ppm, humic acid @ 50 ppm, hydropriming and were stored in desiccators with silica gel for different storage periods of 10 days, 70 days, 140 days, 210 days. Seeds were also kept in ambient conditions to determine how the exterior environment affects vigour indices. The seeds were studied for different characters like; germination percentage (%), shoot length (cm), root length (cm), seedling length (cm), speed of germination, fresh weight (mg), dry weight (mg), dry matter percentage (%), seed vigour index I (length) and seed vigour index II (mass). The result of experiment revealed that variety Bhimashakti out performed GJRO – 11 in respect of all the quality parameters. When seeds were subjected to priming, among them priming with GA3 @ 100 ppm, vermiwash 1:10 dilution and humic acid @ 50 ppm gave increased results sequentially. In case of interaction effect of variety and priming treatments, there was beneficial effect of priming treatment, which resulted in more vigorous and physiological improvement for both varieties. All priming treatments performed very well compared to control. For storage periods (10 days, 70 days, 140 days, 210 days), the initial storage period of 10 days marked better results. However, with the advancement of storage period, seed quality parameters deteriorated. Gradual reduction in seed quality parameters for Bhimashakti over the storage period was less, compared to GJRO-11. Bhimashakti in mutual relation with storage period 10 days gave better results for seeds stored in ambient conditions. There was a steep reduction in all the parameters with the advancement of storage period to 210 days. Correlation analysis with respect to relative humidity of ambient showed negative and highly significant relationship with all the seed quality parameters except dry matter percentage.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    INFLUENCE OF PRE-SOWING SEED TREATMENTS ON GERMINATION AND ITS PARAMETERS IN INDIAN SCREW TREE (Helicteres isora L.) 3615
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-09) DIVAKARA C S; S. B. CHAUDHARI; 2010119023
    The present investigation was conducted under laboratory in the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during late rabi 2020-21 with an aim to study the influence of various pre sowing treatments viz., hot water treatments H1 (550C for 10 min), H2 (550C for 20 min), H3 (700C for 10 min), H4 (700C for 20 min) and hormone treatments [T1 (GA3 @ 50 ppm), T2 (GA3 @ 100 ppm), T3 (GA3 @ 150 ppm), T4 (IBA @ 50 ppm), T5 (IBA @ 100 ppm) and T6 (IBA @ 150 ppm) and along with the control (C0)] on seed germination and its parameters in Indian screw tree (Helicteres isora L.). The characters viz., germination per cent, days taken for initiation of germination (DTIG), days taken for completion of germination (DTCG), speed of germination, root length of seedling (cm), shoot length of seedlings (cm), seedling length (cm), collar diameter (mm), seedling fresh weight (mg), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index (length) and seedling vigour index (mass) were analyzed by completely randomized design (factorial). The analysis of variance for seed germination and its parameters revealed that hot water and hormonal treatments and also interaction of hot water and hormone manifested significant differences for seed germination and all its parameters that were studied. The treatment 700C for 10 min (H3) produced significantly the lowest values for days taken for initiation of germination (3.99 days), days taken for completion of germination (9.72 days) and highest values for seedling fresh weight (28.10 mg) and seedling dry weight (3.09 mg) whereas, the highest germination per cent (21.39%), speed of germination (1.36), root length (0.65 cm), shoot length (4.29 cm), seedling length (4.94 cm), collar diameter (0.164), seedling vigour index (length) (105.66) and seedling vigour index (mass) (65.66) were found significantly the highest in 700C for 20 min (H4). Seeds treated with GA3 @ 100 ppm (T2) produced significantly the highest germination per cent (17.41%), speed of germination (1.25), root length (0.64 cm), shoot length (4.06 cm), seedling length (4.70 cm), seedling vigour index (mass) (52.23) and seedling vigour index (length) (81.82). Significantly the highest days taken for completion of germination (11.25 days) was found in IBA @ 50 ppm (T4) whereas, the highest collar diameter (0.166 mm), seedling fresh weight (28.07 mg) and seedling dry weight (3.18 mg) were found in IBA @ 100 ppm (T5). The treatment combination of H3T2 (hot water 700C for 10 min + GA3 @ 100 ppm) was found to be the highest in the days taken for completion of germination (12.00 days) and speed of germination (1.57). The germination per cent (24.00%), days taken for initiation of germination (3.00 days), shoot length (4.53 cm), seedling length (5.20 cm), collar diameter (0.180 mm), seedling fresh weight (29.50 mg), seedling dry weight (3.40 mg), seedling vigour index (length) (124.80) and seedling vigour index (mass) (81.60) were found significantly the highest in H4T2 (hot water 700C for 20 min + GA3 @ 100 ppm) whereas, the highest root length (0.67 cm) was found in case of H4T5 (hot water 700C for 20 min + IBA @ 100 ppm). Overall, it can be concluded that hot water and hormonal treatments played an important role on the seed germination and its parameters in Indian screw tree. Looking to the seed germination percentage, the days taken for initiation of germination, shoot length, seedling length, collar diameter, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index (length) and seedling vigour index (mass) it is suggested that hot water 700C for 20 min + GA3 @ 100 ppm for enhancement of germination and its parameters in Indian screw tree
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF FRUIT MATURITY STAGES AND SEED EXTRACTION METHODS ON SEED QUALITY IN TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum L.) 3380
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) 2010119074; M. H. Sapovadiya; NAKRANI ANJALIBEN GULABBHAI
    Maturity stage, Seed extraction method, Seed quality, Tomato, Storage The present investigation was conducted at Laboratory of Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, JAU, Junagadh using completely Randomized Design (Factorial), with an aim to study the effect of fruit maturity stages (M1= fruits harvested at turning red color, M2= fruits harvested at red color and M3= fruits harvested at dark red color) and different seed extraction methods (E1= manual extraction, E2= 10 ml 2 % HCl /kg slurry for 30 min., E3=20 ml 2% HCl /kg slurry for 30 min., E4 = 10 ml 2% HCl /kg slurry for 60 min., E5= 20 ml 2% HCl /kg slurry for 60 min., E6= 1% H2SO4 /kg slurry for 20 min., E7= 2% H2SO4 /kg slurry for 20 min., E8= 1% H2SO4 /kg slurry for 40 min., E9= 2% H2SO4 /kg slurry for 40 min., E10= fermentation for 24 hrs., E11= fermentation for 48 hrs. and E12= fermentation for 72 hrs.) on seed quality of tomato during storage. The require quantity of fruits were harvested from the seed production plot of GT-6 variety of tomato grown during Rabi 2019-20 by Vegetable Research Station, JAU, Junagadh. The observations were recorded on twelve seed quality parameters viz., seed recovery (%), 1000 seed weight (g), first count (%), germination (%), shoot length (cm), root length (cm), seedling length (cm), seedling fresh weight (mg), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index I, seedling vigour index II and electrical conductivity of seed leachate (µ mhos per cm) initially at the time of storage followed by six months and nine months after storage. The analysis of variance for experimental design revealed that the effect of fruit maturity stages, seed extraction methods and their interaction effects were found highly significant for all the seed quality parameters included in the present study except seed recovery (%) during the entire storage period. In the present experiment the quality of seed varied with fruit maturity stages and it was reported that the quality of seed improve with advancement of fruit maturity. Among the three different fruit maturity stages, the seeds extracted from the fruits harvested at M3 (fruit harvested at dark red color) gave the significantly highest 1000 seed weight (3.91 g), first count (84.31 %), germination (86.19 %), shoot length (7.86 cm), root length (4.60 cm), seedling length (12.46 cm), seedling fresh Abstract ii weight (414.50 mg), seedling dry weight (16.17 mg), seedling vigour index I (1074.84) and seedling vigour index II (1225.06) with lowest electrical conductivity of seed leachates (50.30 µ mhos/cm) initially at the time of storage followed by six months and nine months after storage. Irrespective of maturity stages, initially at the time of storage and during entire storage period, significantly the maximum first count (77.44 %), germination (80.33 %), seedling fresh weight (495.44 mg) and seedling dry weight (16.97 mg) were reported in treatment E3 (20 ml 2 % HCl/kg slurry for 30 min), however it was found at par with E11 (fermentation for 48 hrs.) for first count (76.78 %) and E10 (fermentation for 24 hrs.) for seedling dry weight (16.88 %). The highest 1000 seed weight (3.61 g), shoot length (7.47 cm), root length (4.58 cm), seedling length (12.04 cm), seedling vigour index I (978.90) and lower electrical conductivity of seed leachates (42.21 µ mhos/cm) were found in treatment E11 (fermentation for 48 hrs.). The interaction effect of fruit maturity stages and seed extraction method also found highly significant for all the seed quality parameters except seed recovery (%) during the entire storage period. Among the 36 treatment combinations of maturity stages and seed extraction methods, the treatment combination M3E3 (fruit harvested at dark red color and seed extracted by treatment of 20 ml 2 % HCl/kg slurry for 30 min) gave significantly the maximum first count (91.00 %), germination (97.00 %), seedling fresh weight (587.33 mg), seedling dry weight (21.01 mg) and lower electrical conductivity of seed leachates (41.15 µ mhos/cm), however it was found at par with treatment combination M3E11 (fruit harvested at dark red color and seed extracted by fermentation for 48 hrs) for first count (90.00 %), seedling fresh weight (473.33 mg) and seedling dry weight (20.60 mg) during the storage period. The treatment combination M3E11 (fruit harvested at dark red color and seed extracted by fermentation for 48 hrs) gave significantly higher shoot length (8.43 cm), root length (5.20 cm), seedling length (13.40 cm) and vigour index I (1264.10), while for the remaining traits viz., 1000 seed weight (4.49 g) and seedling vigour index II (1800.33), significantly better result was obtained in the treatment combination M3E4 and M3E10 respectively. In the present experiment, during the storage condition seed quality parameters viz., 1000 seed weight, first count percentage, germination percentage, shoot length, root length, seedling length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index I and seedling vigour index II were decreased with increased the storage period, while electrical conductivity of seed leachates increased with increased in storage period. Overall, looking to the seed quality, it could be suggested that for getting the good quality seed in GT 6 variety of tomato, fruits should be harvested at dark red color stage (M3) and seed should be extracted by the treatment of E3 (20 ml 2 % HCL/kg slurry for 30 min.) or by E11 (fermentation for 48 hrs), as it was found most promising for better germination (%) and majority of the seed quality parameters included in the present study. Deterioration of seed quality was observed over a period of time in tomato seeds stored under ambient storage condition.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GROUPING OF KABULI CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) GENOTYPES BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTER AND QUALITY SEED PARAMETER 3362
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) PARMAR VISHAL LILABHAI; L.K Sharma; 2010119083
    Kabuli Chickpea, characterization, plant morphology, yield parameters, chemical test, quality seed parameters. The present experiment was conducted at Pulses Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, to describe 42 chickpea genotypes using morphological features (stem, plant, seed and yield parmeters), chemical tests and seed quality parameters. Based on 22 plant morphological features, 4 yield parameters, 6 quality seed parameters and 6 chemical tests in 42 chickpea genotypes were divided into distinct groups. Genotypes were divided into two groups (present and absent) based on anthocyanin pigmentation, absent in all 42 genotypes, while on the basis of height of insertion of the first flower genotypes were divided into three groups i.e., high (3 genotypes), medium (38 genotypes) and low (3 genotypes). The genotypes were classified based on their flowering times; early in (15 genotypes) and medium (27 genotypes). The genotypes were divided into two groups based on their growth habits erect (3 genotype) and semi erect (39 genotypes). The genotypes were divided into three (small, medium and large) groups based on leaflet size medium (9 genotypes) and large (33 genotypes). The genotypes were divided into two groups based on peduncle length medium (2 genotypes) and long (40 genotypes). Based on plant height, the genotypes were grouped into three groups short in (11 genotypes), medium (31 genotypes) and tall in (1 genotype). Based on pod size, the genotypes were grouped into small (4 genotypes), medium (28 genotypes) and large (10 genotypes). Based on days to maturity, the genotypes were grouped into two groups early (26 genotypes) and medium (16 genotypes). Based on the number of branches per plant, the genotypes were grouped into high (7 genotypes), medium (33 genotypes) and low (2 genotypes). Number of pods per plant varied significantly among the genotypes. number of pod per plant ranged from 17.79 (ICCV-171316) to 25.73 (ICCV-181302) with mean of 21.09. The first pod bearing node varied significantly among the forty-two genotypes and first pod bearing node ranged from 16.59 cm (ICCV-171316) to 28.14 cm (ICCV-171302) with the mean of 21.88 cm. Based on intensity of green colour, the genotypes were grouped into light green (5 genotypes), medium green (36 genotypes) and dark green (1 genotypes). Based on number of flower per peduncle, flower colour and stripes on standard of flower the genotypes were not differentiated. In all the 42 genotypes, number of flower per peduncle was single, flower colour was white and stripes on standard of flower was absent. Based on seed colour, seed testa texture and seed ribbing, the genotypes were not differentiated for these characters. All the forty-two genotypes had beige colour, smooth testa texture and seed ribbing was absent. Based on seed size, the genotypes were grouped into small (6 genotypes), medium (29 genotypes), large (6 genotypes) and very large (1) genotype. Based on number of seeds per pod, the genotypes were grouped into one seed (36 genotypes) and double seed (6 genotype). Based on 100 seed weight genotypes were varied significantly and it ranged from 21.67 g (VIHAR) to 48.00 g (RVSSG-62) with a mean of 31.48 g. Seed yield per plant varied significantly among the genotypes and the seed yield per plant ranged from 8.60 g (ICCV-181315) to 25.31 g (ICCV-181304) with a mean of 16.91 g. Biological yield per plant varied significantly among the genotypes and the biological yield per plant ranged from 27.06 g (ICCV-181315) to 69.25 g (ICCV-171317) with a mean of 48.83 gm. Harvest index was varied significantly among the genotypes and the harvest index ranged from 26.13 (ICCV-181304) to 40.07 (ICCV-181301) with a mean of 32.75%. The seeds were subjected to NaOH, CuSO4, Na2CO3, KOH, FeSO4 and GA3 growth response test for differentiating the genotypes. On the basis of NaOH test genotypes were grouped into light yellow (21 genotypes), dark yellow (13 genotypes) and no colour change (8 genotypes). Based on the CuSO4 test, genotypes were grouped into two categories dark brown (29 genotypes) and no change (13 genotypes). Based on the modified phenol test B (Na2CO3 test) genotypes were grouped into two categories dark brown (32 genotypes) and no change 10 genotypes. On the basis of KOH test genotypes were grouped into dark brown (14 genotypes) and no colour change (28 genotypes). Based on FeSO4 test, genotypes were grouped into two categories black in (24 genotypes) and no change (18 genotypes). Based on GA3 growth response test varied significantly among the forty-two genotypes and the GA3 growth response test ranged from 25.28 cm (GKL-14306) to 48.21 cm (ICCV-2) with a mean of 36.80 cm. Seedling length varied significantly among the 42 genotypes. Highest seed germination percentage was recorded in DL-17-1306 (97.22). Among 42 genotypes, seedling vigour index I and II was high in all forty-two genotypes. In a seed production operation, genetic purity is an important factor to consider. As a result, simple and reliable approaches for determining genetic purity and genotype characterization must be devised. Kabuli chickpea genotypes with defined physical traits can be used in DUS testing, seed production and genetic purity testing. Chemical test findings can be used to identify and grouping of kabuli chickpea genotypes, as well as for genetic purity testing.