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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS AND STORAGE PERIODS ON DORMANCY OF MARIGOLD SEED
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2022-09) CHUDASAMA KAJALBEN ASHOKBHAI; Dr. D. L. Varmora
    The present investigation entitled “The effect of different packaging materials and storage periods on dormancy of marigold seed” was carried out at high tech horticulture park, Department of Horticulture, JAU, Junagadh during the 2021-22. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with factorial concept had three repetitions and twelve treatment combinations consist of T1 - double layer polythene bag + 30 days ofstorage , T2 - double layer polythene bag + 60 days ofstorage T3 - double layer polythene bag + 120 days of storage, T4 - double layer polythene bag + 180 days of storage, T5 - cloth bag + 30 days of storage, T6 -cloth bag + 60 days of storage, T7 -cloth bag + 120 days of storage, T8 - cloth bag + 180 days of storage, T9 - aluminum foil pouch +30 days of storage, T10 - aluminum foil pouch + 60 days of storage, T11 - aluminum foil pouch +120 days ofstorage, T12 -aluminum foil pouch +180 days of storage.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF PRUNING AND INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L.) CV. SINDHAN 3436
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2021-11) PARASANA JIGAR SURESHBHAI; Dr. D. K. Varu
    The present experiment entitled “effect of pruning and integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and quality of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) cv. Sindhan” was carried out at Fruit Research Station, Madhadi Baugh Farm, Department of Fruit science, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during April-19 to November-20. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with Factorial concept (FRBD) consisting two factors with three replications. The treatment comprised with three levels of pruning viz., Unpruned (P1), light pruning at 10 cm (P2) and medium pruning at 20 cm (P3) and eight treatments of integrated nutrient management i.e. 100 % RDN + 10 kg FYM (F1), 100 % RDN + 10 kg FYM + Azotobacter 15 ml + PSB 15 ml + Micronutrient grade-IV (0.5 %) + GA3 25 ppm (F2), 80 % RDN + 10 kg FYM (F3), 80 % RDN + 10 kg FYM + Azotobacter 30 ml + PSB 30 ml + Micronutrient grade-IV (1.0 %) + GA3 50 ppm (F4), 60 % RDN + 10 kg FYM (F5), 60 % RDN + 10 kg FYM + Azotobacter 45 ml + PSB 45 ml + Micronutrient grade-IV (1.5%) + GA3 75 ppm (F6), 10 kg FYM + 4 kg Castor cake + 2.5 kg Vermicompost + Micronutrient grade-IV (1%) + GA3 50 ppm (F7) and 10 kg FYM + Panchgavya @ 3 % + Jivamrut 500 l/ha + Amritpani @ 600 l/ha + Banana pseudostem sap @ 1 % 100 % RDN + 10 kg FYM (F8). The result of the study indicated that application of different level of pruning had produced non-significant effect on growth parameters except length of shoot which was higher (13.40 cm) in medium pruning at 20 cm (P3). The flowering parameters, fruiting, yield and yield attributes and quality parameters were significantly influenced by various level of pruning. Maximum number of flower per shoot (14.94), number of fruit set per shoot (10.72) and fruit set (70.10 %), minimum fruit drop (26.26 %), maximum fruit yield (8.82 kg/plant and 2.44 t/ha), average weight of fruit (174.11 g), fruit length (6.59 cm), fruit girth (6.83 cm), pulp weight (104.45 g), pulp: seed ratio (8.18), pulp: rag ratio (1.82), minimum number of seed (25.55), weight of seed (13.42 g), maximum total sugar (22.33 %), reducing sugar (18.47%), non-reducing sugar content (3.83%), ascorbic acid (21.55 mg/100g), TSS (22.31 °Brix) and minimum acidity (0.25 %) were noted in medium pruning at 20 cm (P3). Whereas, minimum days to flower initiation (73.41) was recorded with unpruned tree (P1). However, soil EC, soil pH, available soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil were also noted non-significant due to pruning. In case of integrated nutrient management, the variation was also found non significant for growth except length of shoot (14.95 cm) which was found maximum with the application of 100 % RDN + 10 kg FYM + Azotobacter 15 ml + PSB 15 ml + Micronutrient grade-IV (0.5 %) + GA3 25 ppm (F2). Similarly, the minimum days to flower initiation (70.72) was recorded with application of 60 % RDN + 10 kg FYM (F5). Whereas, maximum number of flower per shoot (16.27), number of fruit set per shoot (12.58), fruit set (76.74 %), minimum fruit drop (18.02 %), maximum fruit yield (9.26 kg/plant and 2.57 t/ha), average weight of fruit (182.96 g), fruit length (7.14 cm), fruit girth (7.54 cm), pulp weight (108.08 g), pulp: seed ratio (10.32), pulp: rag ratio (1.87), minimum number of seed (23.27), weight of seed (11.06 g) and quality parameters like non-reducing sugar (3.94 %) were recorded in 80 % RDN + 10 kg FYM + Azotobacter 30 ml + PSB 30 ml + Micronutrient grade-IV (1.0 %) + GA3 50 ppm (F4). The quality parameters were also significantly influenced by organic manures and maximum total sugar (23.34 %), reducing sugar (19.34 %), ascorbic acid (23.02 mg/100g), TSS (22.74 °Brix) and minimum acidity (0.25 %) were recorded in 100 % RDN + 10 kg FYM + Azotobacter 15 ml + PSB 15 ml + Micronutrient grade-IV (0.5 %) + GA3 25 ppm (F2). For interaction effect, the result was found non-significant for all parameters. As far as the economic point of view, maximum net realization (Rs 76,984 ha 1 ) along with cost benefit ratio (2.11) was obtained in medium pruning at 20 cm with respect to integrated nutrient management treatment of 80 % RDN + 10 kg FYM + Azotobacter 30 ml + PSB 30 ml + Micronutrient grade-IV (1.0 %) + GA3 50 ppm (F4) has noted maximum net realization (Rs 99,182 ha-1 ) along with cost benefit ratio (2.23).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NPK ON PLANT GROWTH, YIELD AND FLOWER QUALITY OF ZINNIA (Zinnia elegans L.) 3370
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) CHAVDA MAHESH VAJUBHAI; N. D. Polara; 2020619005
    Zinnia, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, interaction The field experiment entitled “Effect of different levels of NPK on plant growth, yield and flower quality of zinnia (Zinnia elegans L.)” was carried out during February to June, 2020. The experiment ware laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with control vs rest concept. Total thirteen treatment combinations of three levels of nitrogen viz., 100 kg ha-1 (N1), 150 kg ha-1 (N2) and 200 kg ha-1 (N3), two levels of phosphorus viz.,50 kg ha-1 (P1) and 75 kg ha-1 (P2) and two levels of potassium viz., 50 kg ha-1 (K1) and 75 kg ha-1 (K2) and replicated thrice. The result of experiment revealed that individual effect of nitrogen 200 kg ha-1 (N3) recorded. higher plant height, number of branches per plant, plant spread (N-S), fresh weight of plant, chlorophyll content and it was at par with 150 kg ha-1 (N2) in such parameter, but higher plant spread (E-W) was observed in 150 kg ha-1 (N2) and at par with 200 kg ha-1 (N3) level. The minimum days to first flower bud appearance reported in 100 kg ha-1 (N1). Maximum duration of noted in 150 kg ha-1 (N2) and at par with 200 kg ha-1 (N3) level. The higher flower bud length, number of flower per plant, weight of single flower, flower yield per plant, higher flower yield per plot and flower yield per hectare was observed in 150 kg N ha-1 (N2). For the phosphorus, maximum number of branches per plant, fresh weight of plant, flower head diameter and flower head diameter were found in 75 kg ha-1 (P2). Higher phosphorus content in plant was observed in 75 kg ha-1 (P2). but, it was also at par with in 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 (P1). However, higher phosphorus uptake was recorded in 150 kg ha-1 (N2) level. In the potassium, higher flower bud length, vase life of flower of flower was found in 75 kg ha-1 (K2) and maximum potassium uptake was showed in 150 kg ha-1 (N2) treatment. The interaction effect of NPK was found significant for plant height and recorded maximum plant height in treatment combination 200: 75: 75 NPK kg ha-1 (N3: P2: K2), but it was at par with 150: 50: 75 NPK kg ha -1 (N2: P1: K2), 150: 75: 50 NPK kg ha-1 (N2: P2: K1), 200: 50: 75 NPK kg ha-1 (N3: P1: K2) and 200: 75: 50 NPK kg ha-1 (N3: P2: K1). Flower head diameter was noted maximum in treatment combination of 200: 75 NP kg ha-1 (N2: P2) and it was found at par with 150: 50 NP kg ha-1 (N2: P1). Shelf life of flower was maximum in treatment combination 200: 50 NP kg ha-1 (N3: P1) and found at par with 150: 75 NP kg ha-1 (N2: P2). Maximum flower yield per plant was noted in treatment combination 150: 75: 50 NPK kg ha-1 (N2: P2: K1) and it was found at par with 150: 50: 75 NPK kg ha-1 (N2: P1: K2) and 150: 75: 75 NPK kg ha-1 (N2: P2: K2). Maximum potassium uptake was noted in treatment combination 150: 50 NK kg ha-1 (N2: K1) which was at par with 150: 75 NK kg ha-1 (N2: K2) and 200: 50 NK kg ha-1 (N3: K1). Maximum potassium uptake was noted in treatment combination 150: 75: 50 NPK kg ha-1 (N2: P2: K1) and found at par with 150: 50: 75 NPK kg ha-1 (N2: P1: K2). It is concluded that zinnia are fertilized @150 kg N ha-1 in two split (half dose at the time of transplanting and the remaining half dose the at the 20 days after transplanting) plus 75 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 50 kg K2O ha-1 as basal dose for higher flower yield, net return and BCR under South Saurastra region condition.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “EFFECT OF BIO-STIMULANTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)” 3364
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) PATEL RUCHITKUMAR PRAFULCHANDRA; V. L. Purohit; 2020618014
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of bio-stimulants on growth, yield and quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)” was conducted at Polytechnic in Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2019 in Kharif season. Total sixteen treatments combinations of two varieties viz., GJO 3 (V1), GO 6 (V2), four bio-stimulants alone viz., Novel @ 1% (B1), Seaweed extract @ 2.5% (B2), Panchagavya @ 3% (B3), Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (B4) and in combination viz., Novel @ 1% + Panchagavya @ 3% (B5), Seaweed extract @ 2.5% + Panchagavya @ 3% (B6), Panchagavya @ 3% + Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (B7), Novel @ 1% + Panchagavya @ 3% + Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (B8) were laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications. The results showed that variety GO 6 (V2) recorded highest leaf area index (2.25), maximum fruit length (11.23 cm), maximum marketable fruit yield (3.40 kg/net plot), highest marketable fruit yield (11.79 t/ha), highest chlorophyll content (28.97 SPAD) and minimum crude fiber content (32.64 %). However, variety GJO 3 recorded maximum ascorbic acid (16.72 mg/100 g). Varieties were found non significant in growth parameters viz., plant height, number of primary branches, days to 50 % flowering and number of flowering nodes and yield parameters viz., fruit diameter, number of fruits per plant, number of pickings and weight of fruit. In case of bio-stimulants, application of Novel @ 1% + Panchagavya @ 3% + Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (B8) perceived maximum plant height (193.80 cm), maximum number of primary branches (3.47), minimum days to 50 % flowering (44.83 days), highest number of flowering nodes (5.77), highest leaf area index (2.32), maximum fruit length (11.53 cm), highest number of fruits per plant (17.07), highest number of pickings (14.03), maximum weight of fruit (17.34 g), maximum marketable yield (4.01 kg/net plot) (13.94 t/ha), highest chlorophyll content (36.03 SPAD) and maximum ascorbic acid (21.70 mg/100 g). Only, crude fiber content was found better in Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (B4) (30.27 %). The interaction effect of variety GO 6 and bio-stimulant application Seaweed Extract @ 2.5% and Panchagavya @ 3% (V2B6) noted maximum fruit length (12.07 cm), variety GO 6 and bio-stimulant application of Novel @ 1% + Panchagavya @ 3% + Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (V2B8) exhibited maximum chlorophyll content (37.63 SPAD). The interaction effect between variety GJO 3 and bio-stimulant application of Panchagavya @ 3% + Novel @ 1% + Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (V1B8) improved ascorbic acid (21.94 mg/100 g) and minimum crude fiber content was observed in variety GO 6 and Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (V2B4) (28.79 %). The interaction effect was found non-significant in all growth parameters as well as yield parameters except leaf area index and fruit length. Also, the worked-out economics revealed that highest BCR was in variety GO 6 (V2) (1.31) and bio- stimulants application of Novel @ 1% + Panchagavya @ 3% + Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha (B8) (1.71). On the basis of results obtained from the present investigation, it can be concluded that variety GO 6 found better in marketable fruit yield and bio-stimulants foliar application of Novel @ 1% and Panchagavya @ 3% just after initiation of flowering at 15 days interval and soil application of Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha at sowing onwards 30 days interval has been found effective with regard to growth parameters viz., plant height, number of primary branches, days to 50 % flowering, number of flowering nodes and leaf area index; yield parameters viz., fruit length, number of fruits per plant, number of pickings, weight of fruit and marketable yield. Also, the net return and benefit cost ratio obtained higher in variety GO 6 and bio-stimulants Novel @ 1% + Panchagavya @ 3% + Jivamrut @ 500 l/ha
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SPACING AND NITROGEN ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF GOMPHRENA (Gomphrena globosa L.) 3358
    (JAU JUNAADH, 2021-09) MALANI BHUMIBEN JAYANTIBHAI; N. D. Polara; 2020619014
    Gomphrena, Spacing, Nitrogen The present experiment entitled “Effect of spacing and nitrogen on growth and yield of gomphrena (Gomphrena globosa L.)” was conducted at the Fruit Research Station, Jambuvadi Farm, Department of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during summer season of the year 2020-21. Twelve treatment combination arising from three levels of spacing viz. 20 x 10 cm (S₁), 20 x 15 cm (S₂), 20 x 20 cm (S₃) and four levels of nitrogen i.e. 00 kg ha-1 (N₁), 50 kg ha-1 (N₂), 75 kg ha-1 (N₃) and 100 kg ha-1 (N₄) were allocated in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with factorial concept in three replication. Growth, flowering, yield and nutrient content of gomphrena were influenced by different levels of spacing. Maximum plant height was recorded at 30 DAP (36.25 cm), 60 DAP (63.84 cm) and 90 DAP (81.66 cm), flower yield per plot (2962.69 g), flower yield (13.68 t/ha), uptake of nitrogen by plant (214.20 g/plant) in 20 x 10 cm (S₁) spacing, while maximum plant spread (N-S) was recorded at 30 DAP (19.76 cm), 60 DAP (29.47 cm) and 90 DAP (36.50 cm) and plant spread (E-W) was recorded at 30 DAP (24.24 cm), 60 DAP (34.44 cm) and 90 DAP (53.61 cm), minimum number of days taken to flower bud initiation (23.16 days), minimum number of days taken for first flower (30.73 days) in 20 x 20 cm (S₃) spacing. The maximum number of primary branches per plant at 50% flowering (8.11) and at full bloom (11.53), maximum days of flower span (78.50 days), fresh weight of plant (489.37 g), dry weight of plant (128.15 g), chlorophyll content (46.37 SPAD), shelf life (28.01 days), number of flowers per plant (139.54), weight of flowers per plant (109.90 g), fresh weight of 100 flowers (79.59 g), dry weight of hundred flowers (36.41 g), available nitrogen content in soil (258 kg ha-1 ), nitrogen content from plant (2.27 per cent) were recorded in 20 x 20 cm (S₃) spacing. All the parameters like growth, flowering, yield and nutrient content were significantly influenced by different levels of nitrogen. Maximum plant height was recorded at 30 DAP (34.33 cm), 60 DAP (60.32 cm) and 90 DAP (78.76 cm), plant spread (N-S) at 30 DAP (18.47 cm), 60 DAP (26.97 cm) and 90 DAP (35.26 cm) and plant spread (E-W) at 30 DAP (21.98 cm), 60 DAP (31.93 cm) and 90 DAP (49.38 cm), number of primary branches per plant at 50% flowering (8.20) and full bloom (11.33), days of flower span (82.83 days), chlorophyll content (46.62 SPAD), shelf life (28.51 days), fresh weight of 100 flowers (75.78 g), dry weight of hundred flowers (33.72 g), available nitrogen content in soil (280 kg ha-1 ), maximum nitrogen content from plant (2.54 per cent), uptake of nitrogen by plant (237.65 g/plant) were observed in 100 kg N ha-1 (N4) treatment, while maximum number of flowers per plant (133.14), weight of flowers per plant (101.21 g), flower yield per plot (3018.12 g), flower yield (13.94 t/ha) were significant higher in application of 75 kg N ha-1 (N₃) treatment. From the economic point of view, planting of gomphrena at 20 x 10 cm (S₁) spacing was found most profitable as it recorded the highest net income (Rs. 81,365 ha-1 ) with highest BCR (1.46) and the application of nitrogen @ 75 kg N ha-1 (half dose as basal and remaining half dose of 45 DAP) was found most profitable as it recorded the highest net income (Rs.78,513 ha-1 ) with highest BCR (1.28) in gomphrena under South Saurastra region.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF FOLAIR APPLICATION OF MULTI-MICRONUTRIENTS GRADE IV AND PRE HARVEST BAGGING ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L.) CV. L-49 3346
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-08) The present experiment entitled “Effect of foliar application of grade IV micronutrient and pre harvest bagging on yield and quality of guava cv. L-49” was conducted during the year 2020-21 at Madhadi Baug, Fruit Research Station, Department of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat). The treatments comprised of different concentration of multi-micronutrient grade IV (M1- Multi-micronutrient grade IV 0.5%, M2- Multi-micronutrient grade IV 1% and M3- Multi-micronutrient grade IV 1.5%) and different pre harvest bagging (B0 – Control, B1- Newspaper bag, B2- White paper bag, B3- Brown paper bag, B4 – non wooven bag). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with factorial concept with three repetitions. The observations were recorded in four parameters i.e. fruiting, physical, biochemical and orgenoleptic parameters. The multi-micronutrient grade IV 1% exhibited the maximum fruit set (79.92%), minimum fruit drop (20.08%) & maximum fruit retention (59.82%), maximum no. of fruits/tree (321.33), yield (50.90 kg/tree) and maximum fruit length (5.52 cm), diameter (5.68 cm), volume (144.12 cm3; The present experiment entitled “Effect of foliar application of grade IV micronutrient and pre harvest bagging on yield and quality of guava cv. L-49” was conducted during the year 2020-21 at Madhadi Baug, Fruit Research Station, Department of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat). The treatments comprised of different concentration of multi-micronutrient grade IV (M1- Multi-micronutrient grade IV 0.5%, M2- Multi-micronutrient grade IV 1% and M3- Multi-micronutrient grade IV 1.5%) and different pre harvest bagging (B0 – Control, B1- Newspaper bag, B2- White paper bag, B3- Brown paper bag, B4 – non wooven bag). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with factorial concept with three repetitions. The observations were recorded in four parameters i.e. fruiting, physical, biochemical and orgenoleptic parameters. The multi-micronutrient grade IV 1% exhibited the maximum fruit set (79.92%), minimum fruit drop (20.08%) & maximum fruit retention (59.82%), maximum no. of fruits/tree (321.33), yield (50.90 kg/tree) and maximum fruit length (5.52 cm), diameter (5.68 cm), volume (144.12 cm3
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FERTIGATION LEVELS AND MULCHING ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM cv. THAI CHEN QUEEN 3345
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-08) NAIK PANKTI JAYESHKUMAR; D. L. Varmora; 2020619016
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of different fertigation levels and mulching on growth, yield and quality of chrysanthemum cv. Thai Chen Queen” was carried out at Madhadi baug, Fruit Research Station, Department of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat). The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with factorial concept with fifteen treatment combinations, consisting three levels of fertigation i.e. 75 % RDF (F1), 100 % RDF (F2), 125 % RDF (F3) and five different types of mulches i.e. black plastic mulch (M1), silver plastic mulch (M2), white plastic mulch (M3), farm waste mulch (M4) and control (M5). The treatments were repeated three times. Among the various fertigation levels, application of 125 % RDF (F3) resulted maximum plant height (29.60 cm), number of leaves per plant (134.13), number of laterals per plant (10.77), spread of plants N-S direction (26.85 cm) and E-W direction (26.40 cm) at full bloom stage in chrysanthemum. Significantly minimum days for first flower bud appearance (42.73) were found in 125% RDF. Maximum number of flowers per plant (64.79), number of flowers per plot (1050.17) and yield of flower per plot (4.13 kg/plot) were recorded with the application of 125 % RDF (F3). The results unveiled that an application of 125 % RDF (F3) significantly gave largest flower diameter (11.50 cm), maximum flower weight (4.02 g), vase life (7.26 days), dry weight of whole plant (180.73 g) and dry weight of flower (1.49 g) in chrysanthemum. Significantly maximum chlorophyll content (60.64 SPAD) was estimated from chrysanthemum plants treated with 125% RDF. Regarding nutrient status, significantly highest NPK content (2.55 %, 1.42 % and 1.27%, respectively), uptake of NPK (460.86 g/plant, 256.63 g/plant and 229.52 g/plant, respectively), available N, P2O5 and K2O in soil (256 kg/ha, 50.92 kg/ ha, 363 kg/ha, respectively) was recorded with the application of 125 % RDF (F3). Application of black mulch (M1) in chrysanthemum plants significantly increased vegetative growth with respect to plant height (31.22 cm), highest number of leaves per plant (134.44), highest number of laterals per plant (10.87) and spread of plant in N-S direction (27.08 cm) and E-W direction (27.48 cm) at full bloom stage. Minimum days for first flower bud appearance (41.56) and for 50% flowering (79.44) were found in black plastic mulch (M1). Black plastic mulch (M1) significantly gave maximum number of flowers per plant (72.11), number of flowers per plot (1137.15) and yield of flower per plot (3.80 kg/plot). Highest flower weight (3.70 g), vase life (7.59 days), dry weight of whole plant (218.73 g) and dry weight of flower (1.51 g) was found significant with black plastic mulch (M1) in chrysanthemum. Chrysanthemum plants treated with black plastic mulch (M1) had significantly recorded highest nitrogen content in plants (2.75%) and higher NPK uptake (601.50 g/plant, 306.22 g/plant and 271.22 g/plant, respectively). However, maximum chlorophyll content (62.47 SPAD) was found in chrysanthemum plants treated with black plastic mulch (M1). Combined application of 125 % RDF with black plastic mulch (F3M1) significantly increased number of flowers per plant (82), number of flowers per plot (1378.67) and yield of flowers per plot (4.94 kg/plot) in chrysanthemum. From the result of the present experiment, it can be concluded that the application of 125 % RDF through fertigation with the application of black plastic mulch enhanced all growth, yield and flowering parameters in chrysanthemum. The same treatment was also resulted in the highest net return (Rs.220094/ha) and BCR (1.92) and thus economically found best for production of chrysanthemum flowers.
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SPACING AND ROW SYSTEM ON MARIGOLD (Tagetes erecta L.) CV. LOCAL 3344
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) GOJIYA BIPIN KARSHANBHAI; Dr. D. K. Varu; GOJIYA BIPIN KARSHANBHAI
    The field experiment entitled “Effect of different spacing and row system on marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) cv. Local was carried out during September 2020 to February 2021. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design comprising with two factor and control. Factor A has six spacing which are 30 X 30 X 60 cm (S1), 30 X 45 X 60 cm (S2), 30 X 45 X 90 cm (S3), 45 X 50 X 90 cm (S4), 50 X 50 X 100 cm (S5) and 50 X 60 X 100 cm (S6). Factor B has two row system (M1), which was paired row and triple row system (M1). The result of experiment revealed that among the spacing, the spacing of 30 X 30 X 60 cm (S1) was recorded maximum plant height, fresh weight of plant, survival percentage, day to 50 percent flowering, flower yield per plot, flower yield per hectare and vase life of flower. Dry weight of plant and flower yield per plant was recorded maximum in spacing of 45 X 50 X 90 cm (S4) Spacing 50 X 60 X 100 cm (S6) was recorded maximum in number of branches per plant, plant spread and number of flower per plant. Among the row system, paired row system recorded highest flower yield per plant, flower yield per hectare as well as vase life of flower and triple row was recorded in highest flower yield per plot. The treatment combination of spacing 30 X 30 X 60 cm with triple row (S1M2) was recorded maximum fresh weight of plant, dry weight of plant, 50 percent flowering, flower yield per plot and flower yield per hectare. Whereas, spacing 30 X 30 X 60 cm with double row (S1M1) has recorded maximum survival percentage and vase life of flower. Rest of treatment recorded maximum as compare to control in plant height, number of branches per plant, plant spread, dry weight of plant, flower yield per plot and flower yield per hectare. The worked out economic revealed that the maximum B:C ratio was obtained in the spacing of 30 X 30 X 60 cm with double row (S1M1). On the basis of result obtained in the present investigation, it is concluded that the planting of paired row system with spacing of 30 X 30 X 60 cm in marigold cv. Local gave highest yield of flower, early flowering and higher net realizatio
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF VERTICAL CULTIVATION OF STRAWBERRY CV. WINTER DOWN UNDER PROTECTED STRUCTURE 3412
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2021-09) SUBHRAJYOTI MISHRA; Dr. K. M. Karetha; 1020618005
    The present investigation entitled “Evaluation and standardization of vertical cultivation of strawberry cv. Winter Down under protected structure” was carried out at Hi-tech Horticulture Park, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University (J. A. U.), Junagadh (Gujarat) during 2019-20 and 2020-21. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design, consisting four treatments each replicated four times. The treatment comprised of four different production system viz., single layer system (T1), double layer system (T2), triple layer system (T3) and four layer system (T4). Biometrical observations on vegetative growth parameters, flowering behavior, fruiting parameters, yield parameters and quality parameters were recorded time to time and were statistically analysed with the Microsoft Excel-2010. The result revealed critical disparity among the treatments for different characters. Significantly the maximum plant height (9.81, 11.83, 14.08 and 17.16 cm) was demonstrated in the triple layer system (T3) at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAP. The same treatment also performed superior response with regards to the plant spread (12.45, 22.62 and 29.06 cm) at 60, 90 and 120 DAP. Likewise, the maximum number of leaves [(8.29, 14.79) and 17.99] were produced in the single layer system (T1) at 60 and 90 DAP and in the triple layer system (T3) at 120 DAP respectively. At 30 DAP non-significant variations with regards to number of leaves per plant was noticed. The maximum leaf area (122.10 cm2 ) was demonstrated by the four layer system (T4), whereas the triple layer system (T3) has shown significantly superior LAI (4.55) at 120 DAP. The single layer system (T1) demonstrated maximum leaf length (7.53 cm), whereas the four layer system (T4) has shown maximum (12.06 cm) leaf width. The larger petiole length (15.34 cm) was observed in the triple layer system (T3), while petiole diameter has shown non-significant influence among the different treatments. The four layer system (T4) exhibited maximum leaf fresh weight (1.44 g) in contrast the triple layer system (T3) has shown maximum leaf dry weight (0.58 g). Again the leaf dry weight: fresh weight ratio (0.39) was excellent in the double layer system (T2). Maximum shoot fresh weight (28.98 g), shoot dry weight (8.07 g), root fresh weight (8.64 g), root dry weight (2.21 g) and root: shoot ratio (0.37) were demonstrated by the triple layer system (T3). Contradictorily, the single layer system (T1) exhibited maximum root length (19.95 cm). The higher content of chlorophyll-a (1.66 mg/g of FW) in the leaves was recorded in the double layer system (T2). In contrast, the content of chlorophyll-b (0.67 mg/g of FW), total chlorophyll (2.31 mg/g of FW) and carotenoid (0.57 mg/g of FW) content in the leaf were significantly superior in the triple layer system (T3). The number of runner and length of runner have shown non-significant variations among the different treatments in the pooled. Whereas, the four layer system (T4) exhibited earliest days to runner development (110.38 DAP). Significantly minimum days were required for flowering (27.96 DAP) in the double layer system (T2), whereas the maximum flowering span (119.13 days) was demonstrated by the single layer system (T1) and the minimum days to anthesis (12.53) were obtained from the four layer system (T4). The number of flowers per plant (23.38) was significantly higher in the single layer system (T1). The variation in terms of days to fruit maturity among the treatments was observed to be non-significant. At the same time, the earliness (58.46 DAP) in days to first harvest was significantly influenced by the double layer system (T2). A significantly better fruit set (87.68%) was observed in the single layer system (T1), which also has shown the higher number of fruits per plant (20.00) in contrast, higher marketable fruit (96.48%) was evident in the the triple layer system (T3). The variation for fruit retention among the treatments was found non-significant. With regards to fruit morphometric parameters, the variation in fruit length, diameter, weight and specific gravity were non-significant, while the fruit volume (15.87 cc) was higher in the single layer system (T1). Likewise, the single layer system (T1) exhibited maximum yield per plant (286.13 g), in contrast the four layer system (T4) has shown maximum yield per plot (5.50 kg), per unit land area (1.91 kg/m2 ) and per acre (7734.63 kg). Fruit biochemical parameters have shown remarkable variations among the treatments. The single layer system (T1) exhibited significantly maximum TSS (9.82 ºBrix). In contrast, the minimum per cent acidity in fruit (0.82%) was produced by the triple layer system (T3). Likewise, the better performance with regards to TSS: acidity ratio (11.72), ascorbic acid content (92.81 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (3.83%), non reducing sugar (1.12%), total sugar (4.91%), sugar: acid ratio (6.19) and anthocyanin content (55.16 mg/100 g pulp) was observed in the triple layer system (T3). Data pertaining to the shelf life of fruit (days) has exhibited statistically non-significant differences among the treatments, while significantly minimum physiological loss in weight (8.75, 12.51, 14.97 and 20.15%), was attributed by the triple layer system (T3). Excellent and pleasing organoleptic scores on various fruit attribute viz., test (7.15), colour (7.44) and overall score (7.14) were observed in the triple layer system (T3) with only exception regarding the fruit aroma, which was superior (6.83) in the double layer system (T2). According to the economic considerations the the triple layer system (T3) was proved to be the best among all the treatments providing a maximum net realization of Rs. 868158.80 and B: C ratio of 0.98. Based on the results obtained from the present investigation, it can be comprehended that the triple layer system (T3) of vertical garden could be considered for adaptation under the protected structure to generate maximum income in the strawberry cv. Winter Down