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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON FLORAL BIOLOGY AND FRUIT SET IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF SAPOTA (Manilkara zapota L.) 3747
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) SAMPADA R; Dr. A. M. Butani; 2020621018
    The present investigation entitled “Studies on floral biology and fruit set in different varieties of sapota (Manilkara zapota L.)” was conducted during the year 2022 at Fruit Research Station, Jambuvadi, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with eight different treatments and three replications. The treatments comprised of different varieties viz., Zumakhiya (V1), Kalipatti (V2), Pilipatti (V3), Culcutti special (V4), Mohongootee (V5), Bhuripatti (V6), Murabba (V7) and Cricket ball (V8). The result of the study regarding the floral biology and fruit set revealed that flower bud of sapota passes through distinct stages until development and takes 27 to 37 days for complete development. The optimum time for anthesis was found from 4:00 to 5:00 a.m., for dehiscence was from 8:00 to 9:00 a.m. and for stigma receptivity was from 8:00 to 9:00 a.m. Intensity of stigma receptivity was more on one day before anthesis. The total duration of anther dehiscence was about 10-13 hours. Minimum days to flower bud development, minimum days to anthesis and maximum duration of dehiscence were found in variety Bhuripatti while maximum pollen germination, pollen viability, fruit set, fruit yield and minimum fruit drop were observed in variety Kalipatti. After the study of floral biology and fruit set in different varieties of sapota, it can be concluded that variety Bhuripatti was observed to be having better floral biological parameters and variety Kalipatti gave the better result in fruit set and yield parameters compared to other varieties
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF BIOSTIMULANTS AND SILICON ON FRUIT SETTING, YIELD AND QUALITY OF MANGO (Mangifera indica L.) CV. KESAR 3636
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-10) AAL JIGARKUMAR MAVAJIBHAI; Dr. K. M. Karetha; 1020619001
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of foliar application of biostimulants and silicon on fruit setting, yield and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kesar” was carried out at Fruit Research Station, Sakkarbaug, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2020-21 and 2021-22. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with Factorial concept (FRBD) consisting two factors with three replications. The treatment comprised with biostimulants viz., without biostimulant, humic acid (1.5 %), panchagavya (3 %), seaweed extract (0.2 %), novel organic liquid fertilizer (2 %) and silicon viz., without silicon, potassium silicate (0.2 %) and orthosilicic acid (0.2 %). The results pertaining to yield and yield attributing and physical parameters with respect to biostimulants indicated significantly maximum number of fruits at grain (71.67, 70.75 and 71.21), pea (15.77, 14.62 and 15.19) and marble stage (4.83, 3.89 and 4.36), fruits at pea (21.96, 20.57 and 21.27 %) and marble stage (6.70, 5.47 and 6.09 %), fruit retention at harvesting (2.13, 1.93 and 2.03 %), minimum fruit drop at pea (78.05, 79.43 and 78.74 %) and marble stage (93.29, 94.54 and 93.91 %), lowest no. of nubbins per 100 fruits at pea (19.52, 21.31 and 20.42) and marble stage (9.78, 11.57 and 10.67), maximum number of fruits per tree (236.34, 191.09 and 213.71), fruit yield (54.87, 46.69 and 50.78 kg/tree) and fruit yield (15.25, 12.98 and 14.12 t/ha), maximum fruit length (10.51, 10.69 and 10.60 cm), fruit breadth (6.64, 6.71 and 6.67 cm), fruit weight (229.68, 239.48 and 234.58 g), pulp weight (172.23, 179.50 and 175.87 g) and pulp: stone ratio (5.16, 5.15 and 5.16) was recorded with the foliar application of humic acid 1.5 % during both the years as well as in pooled analysis, respectively. In biochemicals and quality parameters maximum TSS (23.29, 23.55 and 23.42 ºBrix), ascorbic acid (48.81, 49.19 and 49.00 mg/100 g), total sugar (15.35, 15.40 and 15.38 %), reducing sugar (5.31, 5.45 and 5.38 %) and minimum acidity Abstract (0.210, 0.207 and 0.208 %), maximum fruit firmness (4.41, 4.54 and 4.47 kg/cm2 ), marketable fruits (20.91, 21.56 and 21.24 %), shelf life (13.32, 13.42 and 13.37 days). minimum physiological loss in weight (13.27, 12.85 and 13.06 %) and spoilage (82.06, 81.78 and 81.92 %) was recorded under the foliar application of humic acid 1.5 % during the year 2020-21, 2021-22 and in pooled analysis, respectively. However, different biostimulants had non-significant effect on non-reducing sugar of fruit during individual years and in pooled data. Among the various silicon foliar application of potassium silicate 0.2 % was registered with maximum number of fruits at grain (70.73, 69.78 and 70.25), pea (14.81, 13.65 and 14.23) and marble stage (4.48, 3.69 and 4.08), fruits at pea (20.86, 19.57 and 20.21 %) and marble stage (6.29, 5.26 and 5.77 %), fruit retention at harvesting (1.97, 1.73 and 1.85 %), minimum fruit drop at pea (79.12, 80.51 and 79.82 %) and marble stage (93.71, 94.75 and 94.23 %), lowest no. of nubbins per 100 fruits at pea (21.57, 23.47and 22.52) and marble stage (11.73, 13.87 and 12.80), maximum number of fruits per tree (215.17, 175.87 and 195.52), fruit yield (49.15, 41.14 and 45.14 kg/tree) and fruit yield (13.66, 11.44 and 12.55 t/ha), maximum fruit length (10.35, 10.43 and 10.39 cm), fruit breadth (6.56, 6.54 and 6.55 cm), fruit weight (224.62, 227.86 and 226.24 g), pulp weight (167.57, 170.02 and 168.79 g) and pulp: stone ratio (5.07, 5.07 and 5.07) during individual years as well as in pooled analysis, respectively. The study revealed the maximum TSS (22.85, 23.03 and 22.94 ºBrix), ascorbic acid (48.12, 48.51 and 48.31 mg/100 g), total sugar (15.80, 15.84 and 15.82 %), reducing sugar (5.01, 5.16 and 5.08 %), minimum acidity (0.219, 0.214 and 0.217 %), maximum fruit firmness (4.21, 4.32 and 4.27 kg/cm2 ), marketable fruits (16.84, 16.73 and 16.78 %), shelf life (12.78, 13.03 and 12.90 days), minimum physiological loss in weight (13.94, 13.50 and 3.72 %) and spoilage (81.84, 81.77 and 81.81 %) was observed in potassium silicate 0.2 % during the year 2020-21, 2021-22 and in pooled analysis, respectively. While, variation in non-reducing sugar was observed non significant due to different application of silicon during individual years as well as in pooled data. In the present investigation some of the interaction effects were also found significant. The treatment combination (B1S1) application of humic acid 1.5 % with potassium silicate 0.2 % recorded maximum number of fruits per tree (259.26, 211.88 and 235.57), fruit yield (64.66, 56.18 and 60.42 kg/tree), fruit yield (17.97, 15.62 and 16.80 t/ha), fruit length (10.93, 11.20 and 11.06 cm), fruit breadth (6.82, 6.90 and 6.86 cm), fruit weight (247.78, 261.63 and 254.71 g), pulp weight (187.39, 197.83 and 192.61 g) and TSS (24.10, 24.51 and 24.30 ºBrix) during both the years as well as in pooled analysis, respectively. Among the different treatment combination, humic acid 1.5 % with potassium silicate 0.2 % (B1S1) recorded highest net realization (₹ 6,41,568/ha) with BCR (3.23) followed by treatment combination of panchagavya 3 % with potassium silicate 0.2 % (B2S1) with net realization (₹ 5,46,068/ha) and BCR (3.16). On the basis of finding of two years experiment, it can be concluded that for improved yield and yield attributing characters, physical, biochemicals and quality parameters as well as higher net realization can be achieved with foliar application of humic acid 1.5 % along with potassium silicate 0.2 % at initiation of flowering, pea and marble stage
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF CUSTARD APPLE CV. GJCA-1 3622
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) MAKWANA PAYAL SHAMJIBHAI; Dr. S. K. Bhuva; 2020620005
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of leaf to fruit ratio on growth, yield and quality of custard apple cv. GJCA-1.” was conducted at FRS, Madhadi Baug, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2021-22. The treatments comprised of eight level viz., T1: (Leaf: fruit, 4:1), T2: (Leaf: fruit, 6:1), T3: (Leaf: fruit, 8:1), T4: (Leaf: fruit, 10:1), T5: (Leaf: fruit, 12:1), T6: (Leaf: fruit, 14:1), T7: (Leaf: fruit, 16:1), T8: Control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The result indicated that among eight treatment, maximum leaf area (87.78 cm2 ), maximum chlorophyll content (52.83 SPAD) and maximum leaf carbohydrate content (0.84 %) were observed in T6 (Leaf: fruit, 14:1), maximum fruit weight (178.33 g), maximum fruit length (78.31 mm), maximum fruit width (79.40 mm) and maximum fruit volume (151.57 ml) was observed in T6 (Leaf: fruit, 14:1), maximum pulp weight (79.33 g), maximum pulp: seed ratio (18.58) and maximum pulp: rind ratio (1.29) was noted in T3 (Leaf: fruit, 8:1), maximum yield kg per plant (8.03 kg/plant), maximum yield tonne per hectare (6.69 t/ha) was recorded in T6 (Leaf: fruit, 14:1), maximum total sugar (11.77 %), maximum reducing sugar (3.80 %) and maximum non reducing sugar (7.98 %) was recorded in T5 (Leaf: fruit, 12:1) at harvest. Therefore, leaf to fruit 14:1 showed the better performance in terms of leaf area, chlorophyll content, leaf carbohydrate content, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, fruit volume, yield kg per plant and yield tonne per hectare. In case of pulp weight, pulp to seed ratio and pulp to rind ratio, leaf to fruit 8:1 showed the better performance and in case of total sugar, reducing sugar and non reducing sugar, leaf to fruit 12:1 showed the better performance in custard apple cv. GJCA-1.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF BIO-STIMULANTS AND MULTI MICRONUTRIENTS ON FLOWERING, FRUITING, YIELD AND QUALITY OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L.) CV. ALLAHABAD SAFEDA 3507
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) MATHUKIYA HEMANGIBEN MUKUNDBHAI; Dr. N. D. Polara; 2020620007
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of bio-stimulants and multi micronutrients on flowering, fruiting, yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Allahabad Safeda” was carried out at Fruit Research Station, Madhadibaug, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2021-22. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design with three replications and 11 treatments comprised foliar application (before flowering at 15th July and one month after fruiting at 10th September) of seaweed extract @ 1 and 2 %, humic acid @ 1 and 2 %, Novel organic liquid fertilizer @ 1.5 and 2 %, multi micronutrients grade-IV @1 and 2 %, Azotobacter + PSB + KSB @ 3 and 5 ml/plant each as soil application along with control. Solution was prepared by dissolving 10 ml of bio-stimulants in 1 liter of water (for 1 % solution) and for multi micronutrients grade IV dissolve 10 g of powder in 1 liter of water (for 1 % solution). Different physical and biochemical parameters were recorded. Foliar spray of seaweed extract @ 2 % recorded maximum incremental plant height (1.09 m), incremental canopy spread N-S (1.16 m) and E-W (1.14 m), maximum number of flowers/shoot (33.12), fruit set (84.78 %). Whereas minimum incremental plant height (0.78 m), incremental canopy spread both N-S and E-W (0.53 and 0.63 m), less number of flowers/shoot (16.59) and minimum fruit set (44.49 %) were recorded in control. Foliar spray of seaweed extract @ 2 % recorded maximum fruiting parameters like fruit weight (170.74 g), fruit length (7.47 cm), fruit girth (12.38 cm ), pulp weight (151.04 g), maximum Pulp: seed ratio (22.78). Maximum yield (18.85 kg/tree and 15.70 t/ha) recorded with foliar application of seaweed extract @ 2 %. Minimum fruit weight (121.26 g) and minimum yield (12.40 kg/plant, 10.38 t/ha) were recorded in control. Foliar spray of seaweed extract @ 2 % noted maximum biochemical parameters like, TSS (12.430Brix), ascorbic acid (197.76 mg/100 g), total sugars (14.37 %), reducing sugar (3.05 %) and non-reducing sugar (11.32 %). Minimum TSS (10.48 0Brix), ascorbic acid (181.85 mg/100 g), total sugar (10.77 %), reducing sugar (1.77 %), non-reducing sugar (9.00 %) were recorded in control. Also highest organoleptic score for pulp appearance and colour (8.97), pulp texture (8.93), pulp taste (8.90) and overall acceptability (8.90) were recorded in foliar spray of seaweed extract @ 2 %. Minimum score was recorded in control. However, Novel organic liquid nutrients @ 2 % treatment was found at par with seaweed extract @ 2 % in different parameters like incremental plant height, incremental canopy spread, number of flowers/shoot, fruit set %, fruit weight and fruit yield. Highest benefit cost ratio (0.87) and net realization is Rs. 146815 per hectare were recorded in foliar application with seaweed extract @ 2 % followed by treatment of Novel organic liquid nutrients @ 2 % gave net realization of Rs. 135881 per hectare with a BCR of 0.80. Lowest benefit cost ratio (0.28) with net realization Rs. 45813 were recorded in control. The results obtained in the present study concluded that the foliar spray of seaweed extract @ 2 % ( 20 ml in 10 litre of water) for two times once at pre-flowering and second at 30 days after fruit set resulted in enhanced vegetative, flowering, fruiting, yield, qualitative, organoleptic characteristics and also gave maximum net realization and BCR in mrig bahar of guava cv. Allahabad Safeda under south saurashtra agro climatic condition
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF ROOTSTOCK HEIGHT AND SCION STICK LENGTH ON SUCCESS, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF WEDGE GRAFTING IN GUAVA (Psidium guajava L.) 3496
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) RAJATIYA PURIBEN HAMIRBHAI; Rajatiya Puri H. Dr. D. R. Kanzaria; 2020620012
    The present experiment entitled “Effect of rootstock height and scion stick length on success, growth and survival of wedge grafting in guava (Psidium guajava L.)’’ at Fruit Research Station, Lalbaug, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during March-2021 to July-2021. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with factorial concept with twenty treatment combinations and three repetitions. The experiment involved wedge grafting was performed in guava. The first factor involves rootstock height (15, 20, 25 and 30 cm). The second factor involves scion stick length (05, 7.5. 10, 12.5 and 15 cm) to study the effect of effect of rootstock height and scion stick length on success, growth and survival in guava grafts. The result on the effect of rootstock height minimum number of days taken to sprouting (12.62) in H2 (20 cm height of rootstock). Maximum number of successful grafts (5.00, 5.80, 6.73 and 6.68), highest success rate (50.00, 58.00, 67.33 and 66.82 %), minimum number of failure grafts (1.20, 2.21, 2.81 and 3.32) and lowest mortality rate (12.03, 22.12, 28.09 and 33.18 %) at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days interval, respectively, maximum number of leaves (22.68), number of nodes (11.05), internodes (10.05), leaf area (93.49 cm2 ), incremental scion length (31.79 cm), incremental rootstock length (19.97 cm), graft height (89.72 cm), girth above graft union (6.19 mm), girth below graft union (8.20 mm), number of shoots per graft (4.00) and survival percentage (66.82 %) at 120 DAG were noted in H4 (30 cm rootstock height). The result on the effect of scion stick length minimum number of days taken to sprouting (13.76), maximum number of successful grafts (4.33, 5.58, 6.25 and 6.17), success rate (43.33, 55.83, 62.50 and 61.70 %), minimum number of failure grafts (1.37, 2.46, 3.08 and 3.83) and mortality rate (13.70, 24.68, 30.87 and 38.31 %) at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days interval, respectively, maximum number of leaves (22.59) and maximum survival percentage (61.70 %) at 120 DAG were noted in L3 (10 cm scion stick length). Whereas, maximum number of nodes (9.78), internodes (8.78), leaf area (89.40 cm2 ), incremental scion length (22.52 cm), graft height (65.43 cm), girth above graft union (7.32 mm), girth below graft union (8.11 mm), number of shoots per graft (3.75) at 120 DAG were noted in L5 (15 cm scion stick length). Interaction effect of rootstock height and scion stick length minimum number of days taken to sprouting (11.11 days) was found in treatment H2L3 (20 cm rootstock height and 10 cm scion length) and maximum incremental scion length (33.80 cm) was found in treatment H4L5 (30 cm rootstock height and 15 cm scion length). Hence, for getting more success and the highest survival percentage, the wedge grafts should be prepared during the last week of March to first week of April using 30 cm rootstock (one year old) height and 10 cm scion stick (mature) length in guava.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON BLENDING OF DRAGON FRUIT AND LIME JUICE FOR RTS BEVERAGE 3493
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) DEEPA K; Deepa K Dr. K. M. Karetha; 2020620002
    The present investigation entitled “Studies on blending of dragon fruit and lime juice for RTS beverage” was undertaken at PHT Laboratory, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2021-22. The experiment comprised of twenty-two treatment combinations in Completely Randomized Design with factorial concept including three replications. The experiment entailed two factors viz. blending proportions and storage conditions, where blending proportions of dragon fruit juice and lime fruit juice were 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 and stored at ambient and refrigerated (4 oC) conditions. The stored RTS was evaluated for bio-chemical and organoleptic qualities at an interval of 15 days. It was observed that, there was a gradual increase in TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and acidity while, contradictory decrease in non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid and pH. The score for color, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of blended RTS also decreased during storage. The result indicated that blending ratio of 70:30 (Dragon fruit juice: lime juice) showed noticeably higher values in bio-chemical parameters namely total soluble solids, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars along with organoleptic test which includes aroma, taste and overall acceptability. Treatment with blending proportion of 100:0 of dragon fruit juice and lime juice exhibited better results in case of pH, acidity, 0:100 of dragon fruit juice and lime juice for ascorbic acid whereas, 10:90 blending ratio for color in RTS beverage. In organoleptic testing and ascorbic acid, refrigerated conditions (4 oC) outperformed ambient conditions in storage circumstances. Ambient conditions showed higher values for TSS, pH, acidity, reducing, non-reducing and total sugars. Interaction effect between blending proportions and storage conditions was observed significant for microbial population. Lowest fungal growth of 0.01 Cfu ml-1 and lowest bacterial growth of 0.53 × 108 Cfu ml-1 was seen in 70:30 blending of dragon fruit juice and lime juice stored at Refrigerated condition (4 oC). From this present study, it could be concluded that dragon fruit and lime juice blended at 70:30 ratio and stored at Refrigerated condition (4 oC) for 60 days period was found more acceptable in case of aroma, taste, overall acceptability with lower attack of micro-organisms. There was lesser microbial growth in RTS blended at 70:30 of Dragon fruit juice and lime juice at Refrigerated condition (4 oC) by the end of storage period.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STANDARDIZATION OF FERTIGATION SCHEDULE FOR GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY IN DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus polyrhizus Britton & Rose) 3491
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) Thanki Disha M. Dr. K. D. Patel; Thanki Disha M. Dr. K. D. Patel; Thanki Disha M. Dr. K. D. Patel
    The present research entitled “Standardization of fertigation schedule for growth, yield and quality in dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Britton & Rose)” was conducted at Instructional Farm, Polytechnic in Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2021-22. The treatments comprised of four levels of NPK fertilizer doses (F) viz., F1 = 450 : 250 : 250 g NPK/pillar, F2 = 450 : 350 : 300 g NPK/pillar, F3 = 500 : 750 : 300 g NPK/pillar and F4 = 550 : 800 : 350 g NPK/pillar, with five levels of split application (S) viz., S1 = 2 splits, S2 = 3 splits, S3 = 4 splits, S4 = 6 splits and S5 = 8 splits. The experiment was laid out in Large Plot Technique (CRD with Factorial Concept) with twenty treatment combinations with three replications. The results indicated that among four different NPK fertilizer doses, F3 (500 : 750 : 300 g NPK/pillar) gave maximum stem length (241.35 cm), total number of flowers per plant (18.39), total number of fruits per plant (13.14), fruit length (10.26 cm), fruit breadth (6.44 cm), fruit weight (297.23 g), pulp weight (248.40 g), pulp : peel ratio (5.33), yield (3.89 kg/plant, 15.55 kg/pillar and 17.99 t/ha), marketable yield (15.81 t/ha), fruit pulp (83.62%), plant nitrogen content (0.98%), plant phosphorus content (0.181 %) and plant potassium content (1.61%). Similarly, F2 (450 : 350 : 300 g NPK/pillar) gave minimum peel weight (41.61 g), maximum TSS (14.54oBrix), total sugar (14.16%), reducing sugar (11.61%) and ascorbic acid content (8.65 mg/100 g pulp). While, F4 (550 : 800 : 350 g NPK/pillar) gave minimum titrable acidity (0.119%), maximum non-reducing sugar (2.75%), available soil nitrogen (220.53 kg/ha), available soil phosphorus (26.74 kg/ha) and available soil potassium (425.97 kg/ha). Among five different split applications, S3 (4 splits) gave maximum stem length (242.08 cm), total number of flowers per plant (16.84), total number of fruits per plant (12.76), fruit length (10.19 cm), fruit breadth (6.38 cm), fruit weight (264.48 g), pulp weight (221.17 g), pulp : peel ratio (5.50), yield (3.41 kg/plant, 13.65 kg/pillar and 15.40 t/ha), marketable yield (13.90 t/ha), TSS (13.14 oBrix), fruit pulp (83.56%), total sugar (13.36%), reducing sugar (10.82%), ascorbic acid (8.63 mg/100 g pulp) and minimum peel weight (43.31 g). Similarly, S1 (2 splits) gave maximum non-reducing sugar (2.86%) and minimum titrable acidity (0.126%). The interaction effect between NPK fertilizer doses and various split applications was found non-significant for all parameters except yield and yield attributing parameters. Maximum total number of flowers per plant (19.63), fruit length (10.89 cm), fruit breadth (7.42 cm), fruit weight (331.61 g), yield (4.66 kg/plant, 18.64 kg/pillar and 21.56 t/ha) and marketable yield (18.97 t/ha) were recorded with F3S3 (500 : 750 : 300 g NPK/pillar + 4 splits). While, maximum total number of fruits per plant (14.25) was recorded under F2S3 (450 : 350 : 300 g NPK/pillar + 4 splits). As far as the economics point of view is concerned, the maximum net returns of Rs. 15,21,518 and Benefit Cost Ratio 2.34 in dragon fruit were also obtained with treatment combination F3S3 (500 : 750 : 300 g NPK/pillar + 4 splits)
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “EFFECT OF PRE-SOAKING TREATMENTS AND VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L.) VAR. SINDHAN” 3484
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) DHORAJIYA NIRALI PRAKASHBHAI; A. M. Butani; 2020620003
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of pre-soaking treatments and various environmental conditions on germination and growth of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) var. Sindhan” was carried out at Hi-Tech Horticulture Park, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2021-22. The treatments comprised of eight level of pre-soaking treatments (S) viz., S1 = GA3 500 ppm, S2 = Thiourea 1 %, S3 = Urea 0.1 %, S4 = KNO3 0.1 %, S5 = Cow dung slurry : Water (1:10), S6 = Cow urine : Water (1:10), S7 = Soaking in hot water, S8 = Control and three levels of environmental conditions (E) viz., E1 = Open field, E2 = Net house, E3 = Polyhouse. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with Factorial concept comprising twenty four treatment combinations with three repetitions. The result indicated that among eight pre-soaking treatment, S1 (GA3 500 ppm) taken minimum days for germination (15.51 days) and gave maximum germination percentage (80.56 %) at 30 DAS. Maximum height of seedling (8.80, 22.18 and 33.41 cm) was recorded in S1 (GA3 500 ppm) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Maximum number of leaves per seedling (4.87, 10.22 and 18.36) was observed in S1 (GA3 500 ppm) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Maximum stem diameter (1.39, 2.76 and 4.03 mm) was noted in S1 (GA3 500 ppm) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Maximum length of internode (1.26, 1.53 and 2.18 cm) was obtained in S1 (GA3 500 ppm) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Maximum leaf area (43.30 cm2 ), fresh weight of seedling (8.27 gm), dry weight of seedling (3.05 gm), fresh weight of shoot (5.64 gm), seedling vigour index (4801.80), length of root (16.19 cm), number of primary roots (20.71), number of secondary roots (45.18), fresh weight of root (2.29 gm), dry weight of root (1.06 gm), root : shoot ratio (0.42) and final survival percentage (92.68 %) was recorded in S1 (GA3 500 ppm) at 90 DAS. Among three environmental conditions, E3 (Polyhouse) taken minimum days for germination (20.23 days) and gave maximum germination percentage (79.79 %) at 30 DAS. Maximum height of seedling (8.67, 19.56 and 30.62 cm) was noticed in E3 (Polyhouse) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Maximum number of leaves per seedling (4.46, 9.63 and 17.02) was recorded in E3 (Polyhouse) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Maximum stem diameter (1.34, 2.62 and 3.68 mm) was obtained in E3 (Polyhouse) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Maximum length of internode (1.07, 1.45 and 2.18 cm) was noted in E3 (Polyhouse) at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively. Maximum leaf area (37.94 cm2 ), fresh weight of seedling (8.25 gm), dry weight of seedling (3.00 gm), fresh weight of shoot (5.85 gm), seedling vigour index (4303.57), length of root (15.66 cm), number of primary roots (20.04), number of secondary roots (38.21), fresh weight of root (2.01 gm), dry weight of root (0.95 gm), root : shoot ratio (0.43) and final survival percentage (85.46 %) was observed in E3 (Polyhouse) at 90 DAS. The interaction effect between pre-soaking treatments and various environmental conditions was found non-significant in all parameters except germination percentage and leaf area. The interaction effect between pre-soaking treatments and various environmental conditions on germination percentage was found significant at 30 DAS. Maximum germination percentage (93.33 %) was recorded in S1E3 (GA3 500 ppm + Polyhouse) at 30 DAS. The interaction effect between pre soaking treatments and various environmental conditions on leaf area was observed significant at 90 DAS. Maximum leaf area (46.19 cm2 ) was recorded in S1E3 (GA3 500 ppm + Polyhouse) at 90 DAS. Therefore, pre-soaking treatment of seed during the month of July with 500 ppm GA3 for 24 hrs. under polyhouse condition was found suitable for improving germination percentage and growth of custard apple.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CHARACTERIZATION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES IN BER 3472
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-07) Suraj Kumar; D. K. Varu
    The present investigation entitled “Characterization of different varieties in ber” was carried out at Lal Bagh, Fruit Research Station, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2021-22. The treatment comprises of eight varieties viz., Deshi (V1), Seb (V2), Apple (V3), Umran (V4), Gola (V5), Surti Kantha (V6), Zafrani gol (V7) and Mehrun (V8). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) comprising eight treatments with three replications. The result indicated that the among growth parameters, minimum days taken to sprout (16.33) was noted in variety Surti Kantha (V6). Whereas maximum shoot length (375.00 cm) was noted in Seb (V2) and Zafrani gol (V7). Maximum tree height (4.83 m) was observed in variety Umran (V4). All variety with alternate curved shape of thorn except variety Seb (V2) which was observed with all curved thorns. Maximum stem girth (21.33 cm) above the pruning height was observed in Zafrani gol (V7) whereas below the pruning height (152.00 cm) in variety Zafrani gol (V7). Maximum plant spread NS (4.80 m) was found in variety Zafrani gol (V7) whereas in EW (5.11 m) was recorded in variety Gola (V5). The semi-erect growth habit noted in variety Deshi (V1), Umran (V4), Mehrun (V8) and Surti Kantha (V6). Whereas, variety Seb (V2), Apple (V3), Gola (V5) and Zafrani gol (V7) were spreading growth pattern. The smooth shoot surface was recorded in all variety Deshi (V1), Seb (V2), Apple (V3), Umran (V4), Gola (V5), Surti Kantha (V6), and Zafrani gol (V7), with the exception of Mehrun (V8) with tomentose. The obtuse leaf apex with variety Deshi (V1), Apple (V3), Umran (V4), Surti Kantha (V6) and Zafrani gol (V7). Whereas, Seb (V2), Gola (V5) and Mehrun (V8) were acute leaf apex. The cordate leaf base was noted in variety Deshi (V1), Seb (V2) and Umran (V4). Whereas, oblique leaf base in variety Apple (V3), Gola (V5) and Zafrani gol (V7). While, acute leaf base was in variety Surti Kantha (V6) and round leaf base in Mehrun (V8). The oval leaf shape was observed in variety Deshi (V1) and Mehrun (V8), cordate leaf shape in variety Seb (V2) and Umran (V4), ovate type leaf shape in variety Apple (V3). Whereas, obovate leaf shape was noted in Gola (V5), Surti Kantha (V6) and Zafrani gol (V7). Leaf curving was present in variety Seb (V2) and Mehrun (V8). Whereas, leaf curving was absent in variety Deshi (V1), Apple (V3), Umran (V4), Gola (V5), Surti katha(V6), and Zafrani gol (V7). The sparsely tomentose pubescence on lower surface of leaf was noted except variety Seb (V2) which was observed with smooth lower surface of leaf. In case of flowering and fruiting, bunching habit was noted present in variety Surti Kantha (V6) and Mehrun (V8). Minimum days to flowering (80 days) was recorded in variety Gola (V5). Minimum days (23.33 days) was recorded to fruit set in the variety Apple (V3) and Surti Kantha (V6). Maximum fruit set (12 %) was recorded in variety Mehrun (V8). Plain fruit surface was noted in variety Deshi (V1), Seb (V2), Apple (V3), Gola (V5), Surti Kantha (V6) and Mehrun (V8). Whereas, ridged and wart fruit surface was recorded in variety Umran (V4) and Zafrani gol (V7). Round fruit apex was registered in variety Deshi (V1) and Umran (V4). Whereas, flat fruit apex was observed in variety Seb (V2), Apple (V3), Gola (V5) and Mehrun (V8). While, pointed fruit apex was noted in variety Surti Kantha (V6) and Zafrani gol (V7). The oval shape fruit was recorded in variety Deshi (V1) and Zafrani gol (V7), round type fruit shape was recorded in variety Seb (V2), Apple (V3) and Gola (V5), oblong fruit shape was noted in variety Umran (V4) and Mehrun (V8). Whereas, ovate type fruit shape was recorded in Surti Kantha (V6). Maximum fruit weight (88.03 g), fruit length (5.23 cm), fruit width (5.63 cm), pulp weight (85.26 g) and pulp: stone ratio (30.77) were noted in variety Apple (V3). The oval stone shape was observed in Deshi (V1), Seb (V2), Gola (V5) and Mehrun (V8). Spindle shape stone was noted in Apple (V3). Oblong type stone shape was reported in variety Umran (V4). Falcate type stone shape was recorded in variety Surti Kantha (V6). Whereas, in variety Zafrani gol (V7) was observed with club shape stone. Minimum stone weight (0.53 g) was recorded in the variety Mehrun (V8). Highest yield (12.85 kg/plant) and (3559.45 kg/ha) was noted from variety Seb (V2). The result indicated among quality maximum total sugar (15.17 %) and non reducing sugar (12.48 %) was in variety Apple (V3). Maximum reducing sugar (5.09 %) was noted in variety Gola (V5). Whereas maximum TSS (20.00 ⁰B) was found in the variety Mehrun (V8). The lowest acidity (0.14 %) was recorded in the variety Umran (V4). Maximum score (8.87) obtained by the variety Umran (V4) with golden yellow colour. Highest score (8.95) was noted by the variety Gola (V5) with juiciness. Maximum score (8.20) and (8.18) was observed by the variety Zafrani gol (V7) with very much like flavour and sweet taste respectively. Maximum score (9.05) was recorded by the variety Gola (V5) with extremely acceptability.