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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF MAJOR FRUIT CROPS OF GUJARAT: IMPACT OF NATIONAL HORTICULTURE MISSION 2868
    (jau,junagdh, 2019-07) KUSUMA KUMAR K; Dr. N. J. Ardeshna
    India has witnessed voluminous increase in horticulture production over the last few years due to significant progress in area expansion. The Govt. of India launched National Horticulture Mission during the year 2005-06 for holistic development of horticulture sector. In this connection, the present study was undertaken to assess the growth dimensions, instability in production, components of change in average production and components of change in variance of production. The district-wise secondary data on area, production and productivity of major fruit crops were collected from the year 1994-95 to 2017-18 which was analysed using compound growth rates, Cuddy-Della Valle index and Hazell’s decomposition for three periods; Period I or pre-NHM period (1994-95 to 2005-06), Period II or post-NHM period (2006-07 to 2017-18) and Period III or overall period (1994-95 to 2017-18). Among the growth dimensions, it was observed that the area, production and productivity of banana increased at the rate of 4.93, 7.48 and 2.42 per cent per annum, respectively in Period I while in Period III the same was increased at the rate of 4.87, 8.83 and 3.78 per cent per annum, respectively in Gujarat state while in case of ber Gujarat state recorded the highly significant growth of area, production and productivity in all the three study periods but former attributes were found with negative growth in Period II. The citrus registered highly significant growth in case of area, production and productivity in all the three periods which was more in Pre-NHM period compared to Post-NHM period in case of area and production but in case of productivity increased growth was observed during Post-NHM due to the introduction of high yielding varieties of citrus crop during the period. The rate of increase in area and production was found significant in all the periods but productivity was found to be non-significant in all three periods in case of mango in Gujarat. In case of papaya during Period I, Gujarat state as a whole was observed with the significant growth of area, production and productivity in all three periods. In sapota, Period I and Period II was depicted significant growth in case of area and production but productivity was found non-significant while in Period III the area, production and productivity was found significant. The instability analysis of banana revealed that the Gujarat was found to be having low instability range in Period I and Period III in case of area and productivity while production was found to be in medium instability range and in Period III, the area, production and productivity was found to be more instable with high instability range. The state recorded instability indices in the lower range in all three period in area, production and also productivity of ber. In citrus fruit, the area and production in all three period of Gujarat state was found to be stable with low instability range but productivity in Period I and Period III was found to be falling under medium instability range. The mango crop was found to have high stability Period III and Period II with their indices in high instability range except in Period I which fall under medium stability. In case of papaya, the state was under medium instability range in all three periods while in sapota it was more stable in all the three study periods. The decomposition analysis revealed that in case of ber, citrus, papaya and sapota crops the change in mean area was the major influencing factor while in case of banana and mango change in mean yield was major contributing factor for the change in average production during Pre-NHM and Post-NHM periods. The change in variance of production in banana and mango was majorly affected by interaction between change in the mean area and mean yield variance while in ber and citrus change in area-yield covariance was observed to be the largest share of chance in variance of production. The change in the variance of production of papaya was the interaction between changes in mean area and yield variance and mean area was the major contributor for change in variance in sapota crop.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PRICE BEHAVIOUR OF MAJOR OILSEEDS IN GUJARAT STATE
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2005-10) F. P. Bhatt; Dr. D. B. Kuchhadiya
    The present investigation was undertaken with an objective to study price behaviour of major oilseeds i.e. groundnut, mustard, castor and sesamum of the Gujarat state. The data on various aspects for the period of sixteen years (1988 to 2003) were collected from the various sources. Coefficients of variation, Linear and Quadratic models, multiplicative price model, correlation etc statistical tools were used as analytical tools. Analysis of time series data revealed that prices of groundnut, mustard, castor and sesamum exhibited moderately high degree of inter-year variability and high degree of intra-year variability. There was moderately high fluctuations in year to year price change. All the oilseeds under study showed high increase (i.e.  7%) in yearly prices. The quadratic model was found to be better fit for sesamum and groundnut, while the linear model was found better fit for castor and mustard crops for the trend analysis. The compound rates of increase in prices of crops under study were statistically significant. The prices of groundnut, mustard, castor and sesamum increased at the rate of 5.22, 4.89, 7.65 and 5.52 per cent per annum, respectively. Castor prices increased at relatively higher rate, followed by sesamum, groundnut and mustard. The prices of all the four oilseeds under study indicated downward trend in post harvest period and upward trend in pre harvest period. The maximum value of the coefficient in seasonal variation was found in case of mustard (5.38%), followed by groundnut (3.78%), sesamum (3.69%) and castor (2.84%). The prices of groundnut and sesamum showed less degree of irregular fluctuations while the prices of mustard and castor showed comparatively high and violent type of irregular fluctuations. The values of correlation coefficient of monthly and yearly prices of oilseeds under study were more than 0.80 and were highly significant. The results indicated that monthly and yearly prices of these crops moved in the same direction.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZER USE IN SAURASHTRA REGION OF GUJARAT STATE
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2005-05) Ardeshna Narendra Jamnadas; Dr. K.A.Khunt
    The present study was undertaken with a view to assess the growth in fertilizer consumption and fertilizer use pattern, to examine the gap between actual use and recommended dose of fertilizer, to study the determinants of fertilizer use and to estimate the fertilizer use efficiency for selected major crops in Saurashtra region. Purposive random sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample. In all, 280 farmers were selected randomly, of which, 35 farmers were for each crop viz; groundnut, cotton bajra and wheat from South and North Saurashtra agro- climatic zones. The Secondary data on disrictwise fertilizer consumption, gross cropped area, gross irrigated area and rainfall were drawn from the published sources and primary data in respect of various resources and output were collected for the year 2003-04. The results of the study revealed that among all the crops, the highest gross income was received from cotton crop in Saurashtra (Rs 41938/ha). The highest area was allocated to groundnut crop in both the zones with an average share of 59.17 per cent to size of farm in Saurashtra. In both the zones and for Saurashtra region as a whole, on an average around 92 per cent of sample farmers have used fertilizers. Among all the selected districts, Rajkot topped the list in consumption of N, P, K and NPK during the Period-I, Period-II and Period-III. The annual rate of nitrogen consumption significantly increased in Saurashtra during Period-I (10.68 %) and during Period-III (5.77 % ). The Potash consumption significantly decreased at the rate of 4.06 per cent per annum in the region during the Period-II. Relatively higher stability in consumption of all the nutrient was observed in Period-II as compared to Period-I and Period-III. The gross irrigated area emerged as the chief factor in determination of fertilizer consumption in the districts of Saurashtra region. In case of groundnut crop, the gap in respect of N was higher in large farmers as compared to small and medium farmers in North Saurashtra (37.28 %) and Saurashtra (18.96 %) in groundnut crop. There was no gap in respect of P in North Saurashtra. The over utilization of K was found in South Saurashtra, North Saurashtra and for Saurashtra as a whole. In cotton crop, the gap in respect of N was wider in North Saurashtra agro-climatic zone and it was also wider in large farmers as compared to small and medium farmers in both the zones. P and K were over utilized in all the categories of farms in both the zones in cotton crop. In bajra also, there was gap in use of both N and P and it was wider in North Saurashtra zone as compared to South Saurashtra zone. In South Saurashtra zone, there is no gap in fertilizer use in wheat crop. The gap in use of N and P in wheat crop was observed in North Saurashtra only. Positive and significant impact of rainfall on fertilizer consumption in groundnut was found in South Saurashtra zone and Saurashtra region, whereas the size of farm has negative and significant impact in North Saurashtra zone. In Saurashtra region, fertilizer use in cotton was affected positively and significantly by rainfall and one year lagged price. Rainfall emerges as the important factors in determining the consumption of fertilizer in bajra crop. In Saurashtra region, annual average rainfall (1.0032) and cropping intensity (0.5953) showed positive and significant impact on fertilizer use in wheat crop. The output elasticities of groundnut and cotton with respect to area under the crop and human labour were found positive and significant in both the zones and for Saurashtra too. In bajra crop, the output elacticities for human labour was found positive and significant in both the zones. The elasticities of wheat output with respect to area under crop (0.1615) and human labour (0.4258) were found positive and significant in both the zones. For groundnut crop, the ratio of MVP to factor price of all the included factors except for bullock labour was greater than unity in Saurashtra. In case of cotton, the MVP of all the included factor, except for working capital was quite higher than its unit price in both the zones. The ratios of MVP of bajra crop to factor price of area under the crop, bullock labour, manures and other working capital was less than unity which calls for its restricted use in bajra crop in Saurashtra region. The ratios higher than unity for N in wheat indicated the scope of increase the use of N in both the zones. Human labour was found underutilized in all the selected crops in both the zones except for bajra in North Saurashtra zone and in Saurashtra as a whole. Nitrogen remained under utilized in groundnut and cotton in both the zones and in Saurashtra region but in bajra crop it remained under utilized in South Saurashtra and North Saurashtra. The use of N in wheat crop was found under utilized in North Saurashtra zone only. P and K were over utilized in all the selected crops in both the zones except the case of K in bajra and wheat crop in Saurashtra and North Saurashtra, respectively. Thus it can be concluded that consumption of fertilizers, in general, has increased in all the districts except the consumption of K and fertilizer consumption was mainly influenced by the gross irrigated areas. On farmers’ field the gap in use of N was observed in all the selected crops and was also not utilized efficiently in most of the selected crops.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    AN APPRAISAL OF IMPACT AND PROGRESS OF CROP INSURANCE PROGRAMME IN SAURASHTRA REGION
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2005-04) Gondalia Valji Lalji; Dr. K. A. Khunt
    The present study was carried out to examine the progress and impact of crop insurance scheme on output and input use; and problems of farmers related to it in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state. A sample of 192 farmers was selected purposively from the three talukas of Rajkot district which comprised of equal number of beneficiary and non-beneficiaries. The primary data on inputs use and output of selected crops were collected for the agricultural year 2002-03. Secondary data regarding crop insurance scheme were collected from General Insurance Corporation of India, Gandhinagar, Gujarat state for the period 1985-2003. The compound growth rates were estimated by fitting the exponential function. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to estimate production elasticity of individual inputs. The difference between the two sample means of inputs use was tested by 't' test. The study revealed that the annual family income and consumption expenditure were found higher on beneficiary farms than that of non-beneficiary farms. The dominant districts covered under the crop insurance scheme were Rajkot, Surendranagar and Bhavnagar districts in case of cotton crop; Surendranagar, Bhavnagar and Jamnagar districts in case of groundnut and Banaskantha, Mehsana and Surendranagar districts in case of bajra. Among the various agencies involved in crop insurance programme, Rajkot District Cooperative Bank (RDCB) played dominant role. The growth rate of beneficiary farmers was found higher in Period II (38.94%) than that of Period I (1.44 %). Growth rate of sum insured and premium received was substantially high in Period II (22.90 % and 50.63 %) as compared to Period I (13.57 % and 13.28 %). The amount of claim paid increased more than four times in Period II (Rs.369.36 crore) as compared the Period I (Rs.78.71 crore) which was also reflected by very high growth rate in Period II (100.29 %) as compared to period I ( 8.96 %). This shows the increased recognition of crop insurance scheme. But it also signals to the government towards the burgeoning burden of funds. On an average beneficiary farm, per hectare use of family labour, hired human and bullock labour were found higher by 20.16, 44.12 and 28.24 per cent in cotton, by 14.70, 6.73 and 6.54 per cent in groundnut and by 24.66, 34.41 and 0.27 per cent in bajra, respectively than on non-beneficiary farms. Relatively higher rates of change were observed for the inputs like hired human labour and chemical fertilizers on beneficiary farms as compared to other inputs. On an average beneficiary farm per hectare yield of cotton, groundnut and bajra crop were found higher by 36.60, 20.50 and 64.20 per cent, respectively than that of non beneficiary farm. The respondents of both the groups incurred loss in cotton and groundnut cultivation, whereas, incase of bajra only beneficiaries earned profit. The regression analysis showed that human labour has contributed positive and significantly in both the categories of farms and for most of the crops. Beneficiary farmers were of the opinion that due to crop insurance scheme they were able to use higher quantities of inputs (75.00 %) and thereby obtained higher yield and returns (73.73 %) which has helped to maintain their credibility during bad years (54.17 %). They also suggested for compensation in cash (95.83 %) with amount of sum insured (79.17 %) and for timely payment (88.54 %). They also indicated that the premium rate is high (70.89 %) as compared to losses. The major defects indicated by beneficiaries were: delay in payment (95.83 %); improper base of fixing of compensation (100%) and crop insurance scheme should not be compulsory for borrowers. The reasons quoted by non-beneficiaries for not participating in scheme were : they were not the members of village cooperative society / nationalized bank (71.88%) and they do not want to take risk for payment of premium (65.62 %). In short the growth of crop insurance scheme in terms of number of farmers covered, area covered, premium collected, sum insured, claim paid etc., was found positive in Gujarat. It has affected positively to increase the input use and to minimize the loss of beneficiaries. Though, the crop insurance scheme has succeed in delivering its multifarious advantages to farmers, yet it requires to solve the problems of delay in payment, high rate of premium and proper base for estimation of loss.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FISHING OPERATIONS IN COASTAL SAURASHTRA
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2004-10) Dave Gaurav; Dr. R. L. Shiyani
    This study aims to examine various economic aspects of marine fisheries along coastal Saurashtra utilizing both primary and secondary data. Fishermen respondents with different types of fishing vessels under study were selected from Veraval, Mangrol, and Porbandar fish landing centers. Fish traders were selected from Veraval and Porbandar Ports. The primary data were collected for the fishing year 2003-04 by survey method. The information on prices of major fish species was obtained from Commissionerate of Fisheries, Gujarat, for the period from 1986 to 2003. In order to achieve various objectives of the study, tabular analysis was extensively used. Moreover, Schafer’s ‘surplus production model (1954)’ was used to estimate the Maximum Sustainable Yield of marine fisheries. The Engle-Granger (1987) cointegration test was also used to know the extent of cointegration between the average retail prices of different fish species in Gujarat. The major findings of the study revealed that the average annual total cost for a trawler, OBM and Dugout canoe was Rs 11.0 lakhs, Rs 2.23 lakhs and Rs 0.06 lakhs, respectively. Labour and fuel cost contributed the most in the total operating cost. The annual total catch per trawler, OBM and Dugout canoe was 35.3, 7.01 and 1.0 tonnes, respectively. The corresponding figures per trip were 1247.5, 45.6 and 4.45 kg. The average annual profit per trawl unit, OBM unit and Dugout canoe was Rs. 1.76 lakhs, Rs 0.31 lakhs and Rs 0.28 lakhs, respectively. The maximum sustainable yield estimated from the trawler catch came out to be 4 lakh tonnes and that of OBM catch was 0.55 lakh tonnes in the state. Considering the share of all the types of boats in the total fish production of the state, the MSY of Gujarat state as a whole was rounded up at 8.11 lakhs tonnes. The bivariate correlation coefficients of marine fish retail price ranged between 0.609 and 0.997. The highest correlation was found between Seer fish and Jew fish and the lowest between Lobster and Thread fin. Lobster had the least correlation with all the marine fish species. The price series for marine fish in selected fish species in that state were all 1(1). Eight marketing channels were identified in the region. The fish were sold by weight, but lumpsome transactions were noted in the low valued fish. Due to advance lending procedure adopted by the marketing intermediaries, the fishermen had to follow the forced sale even at lower price. It was observed that the cost of preservation and total cost of marketing was maximum in Prawns. The preservation measures taken for Ribbon fishes and Coilia were quite negligible. Overall, the marketing cost was found to be about 6.3 per cent of the retail price. The commission agent had a share of about 3 per cent of selling price. Business in White pomfret, Prawns and Hilsa was lucrative for all the marketing intermediaries. The marketing cost was very less in local fresh fish market and retailers retained a larger part of consumer’s price followed by wholesalers and commission agents.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ASSESSMENT OF GROWTH AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN GUJARAT STATE
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2004-08) Nrusingh Charan Das; Dr. K.A. Khunt
    The present study was undertaken with a view to assess the progress of livestock sector in terms of population, productivity and production of different species in Gujarat state and to work out the proper allocation strategy for limited livestock research resources for the districts/regions, species and commodities and services, with reference to national goals. The time series data for livestock population, productivity and production were collected from various publications for the period 1992-03 with a view to estimate the compound growth rate for all the districts, all the regions and for the state. For priority setting, Multi-criteria scoring model was used in this study. The study covers all 19 old districts and six livestock species. The compound growth rate of both inmilk and milch indigenous and crossbred cow population were found positive and significant in all the four regions and in state also, whereas the instability was much higher in case of crossbred than that of indigenous cow population. Both inmilk and milch buffalo population growth was found positive and significant in all the districts of Gujarat state, except Bhavnagar. During the period 1992-03, most of the districts registered the positive and significant growth in inmilk and milch goat population. Among the milk producing animals, the highest growth was noticed in crossbred cow. In case of sheep population, the positive and significant growth was found only in Saurashtra region along with low instability as compared to other regions. Both the deshi and improved poultry layer population decreased significantly in most of the districts and the similar trend of growth and instability was also noticed in total poultry population. It was revealed from the composition and distribution study that buffalo was the dominant milk producing animal in all the regions, except Saurashtra, where goat was the dominant in population of milk producing animals. The share of crossbred population in total cattle milk producing animals was increased very slowly during the period 1992-03 in all the regions. The share of deshi layer population was also increased in all the regions but the share was very small as compared to the share of improved layer population. At the state level the inmilk productivity was found positive and significant in all milk producing animals, except the crossbred. In case of milch productivity, only indigenous cow registered the positive and significant growth rate. The sheep wool productivity was increased significantly only in Saurashtra region. The productivity of deshi layer was increased significantly in all the regions, whereas the positive and significant growth was noticed only in Saurashtra and North Gujarat for improved poultry layers. The indigenous cow milk production had increased significantly in all the districts, except Amreli and Bhavnagar and similar trend was also seen in total cow milk and buffalo milk production. All the districts of Middle, South and North Gujarat registered the positive and significant growth in goat milk production, while the non significant growth was observed in most of the districts of Saurashtra region. For wool production, the positive and significant growth was found in most of the districts of Saurashtra region, while rest of the districts had non significant growth rate. Total egg production of the state was significantly decreased, while the positive growth was noticed in deshi poultry layer egg production, but it was statistically non significant. During the same period egg production of improved layers has also decreased significantly. The contribution of buffalo milk was the highest in all the regions, followed by cattle and goat. Similarly the contribution of deshi layer egg production share in all the regions and in the state was gradually increased but it was lesser than share of improved layer. The contribution of Saurashtra in state wool production was increased rapidly due to the increase in sheep population and productivity. In the research allocation priority study, the highest priority should be given to Kachchh district, followed by Panchmahals, Gandhinagar, Mehsana, Sabarkantha and Banaskantha districts. It was further noticed that all the districts of South Gujarat gains considerably over efficiency based allocation, when equity and sustainability criteria are superimposed on it. On the other hand, all the districts of Middle Gujarat and Saurashtra, except Kachchh district lose considerably due to incorporation of equity and sustainability criteria. In species wise priority, the buffalo research claims the highest priority (56.94%) in the state, followed by cattle (39.63%), goat (2.23%) and poultry (0.927%). The share of pig and sheep is very low. However the distribution of resources among the species varies from district to district. Cattle research should target mainly the districts of Saurashtra, whereas the districts of Middle Gujarat are the priority districts for buffalo research. Goat research activities should be concentrated in Saurashtra and Middle Gujarat. Most of the districts of Saurashtra region appear as the priority districts for sheep research. Focus on poultry research should be in Middle and South Gujarat regions. Most of the livestock species are maintained for dual or multiple purposes. So, to prioritise the commodities within the species is very important. At the state level, cattle research should focus on milk production (60.16%), followed by draft power (39.71%), while buffalo research should give more than 99 per cent of resources for milk production. similarly in case of goat research, where milk production gets 92.17 per cent, followed by meat research. Research on sheep should focus on wool production (70.33%), followed by meat (26.83%) and hide (2.85%). In poultry research both egg and meat research claims the equal priority. However the allocation of research resources among the commodities within the species varies across the districts, due to its relative importance and utility. In the commodity priority, milk research demands the highest priority (82.86%) in the state and followed by draft power (15.49%), meat (0.88%) and egg (0.54%). The share of skin and hair and wool is very low. Within the milk research, buffalo milk gets the highest priority in all the districts as well as in state. Similarly poultry meat claims the highest share in meat research in most of the districts. The hide research should focus on goat hide in the most of the districts of Gujarat state. Wool research gets the highest priority in Saurashtra, Middle and North Gujarat, while South Gujarat should focus on goat hair research.