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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF SOIL FERTILITY, SALINITY STATUS AND PRE & POST MONSOON UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY OF COASTAL REGION OF SOUTHERN SAURASHTRA OF GUJARAT 3406
    (2021-09) BHORANIA NIRALI CHANDULAL; Dr. S. G. Savalia
    An attempt has been made to study the chemical properties of soil and quality of irrigation water by collecting twenty surface soil sample (0-15 cm) and forty pre monsoon and post monsoon underground water samples of wells/tube wells at an interval of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 km from sea coast from each taluka viz., Ghogha, Bhavnagar, Mahuva and Talaja talukas of Bhavnagar district, Rajula and Jafarabad talukas of Amreli district, Sutrapada, Kodinar, Una and Veraval talukas of Gir Somnath district and Mangrol & Malia talukas of Junagadh district of coastal region of Southern Saurashtra of Gujarat during the 2019. The soil samples were analyzed for determination of soil fertility parameters viz., N, P, K, S and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B). The results revealed that the available N, P2O5 and K2O content in soil increased with increased in distance from sea cost. The overall mean values of available N in soil were observed 253, 253, 283 and 301 kg ha-1 , available P2O5 15.78, 22.53, 24.21 and 19.44 kg ha-1 and available K2O 313, 334, 334 and 288 kg ha-1 at 0 to 5 km distance from sea coast, while, the overall mean values of available N in soil were observed 365, 322, 359 and 365 kg ha-1 , available P2O5 32.80, 34.94, 32.85 and 23.37 kg ha-1 and available K2O 432, 501, 470 and 362 kg ha-1 at 15 to 20 km distance from sea coast in Bhavnagar, Amreli, Gir Somnath and Junagadh district, respectively. In respect of micronutrients, overall mean values of available Fe content in soils of Southern Saurashtra coastal region were 4.34, 4.77, 5.61 and 6.35 mg kg-1 at 0-5, 5- 10, 10-15 and 15-20 km distance from seacoast. The overall mean values of Mn content in soils of Southern Saurashtra coastal region were 9.62, 10.43, 11.43 and 13.29 mg kg 1 at 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 km distance from seacoast. The overall mean values of available Zn content in soils of Southern Saurashtra coastal region were 0.44, 0.51, 0.65 and 0.85 mg kg-1 at 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 km distance from seacoast. Overall mean values of Cu content in soils of Southern Saurashtra coastal region were 0.88, 0.99, 1.12 and 1.40 mg kg-1 at 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 km distance from seacoast. Overall mean values of available B content in soils of Southern Saurashtra coastal region were 4.60, 3.55, 3.03 and 2.36 kg ha-1 at 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 km distance from sea coast
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “EVALUATION OF ORGANIC CARBON STATUS IN THE SOILS OF SAURASHTRA REGION” 3495
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) Ganvit Khushbuben N.; Key words: Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Organic Matter, Soil Nitrogen, EC2.5, pH2.5; Ganvit Khushbuben N.
    A field experiment entitled “Evaluation of Organic Carbon Status in the soils of Saurashtra Region” was carried out during summer season of 2021. Samples were collected from each taluka of different districts of Saurashtra region and analyzed at Department of Soil science and agricultural chemistry, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. On the basis of analyzed data of soil samples, collected from different district of Saurashtra region of Gujarat, it can be concluded that soil of Saurashtra region was medium in Organic Carbon status with mean value of 0.57 per cent, whereas Porbandar district found highest organic Carbon percentage with 0.82 per cent value and Surendranagar district found lowest organic carbon percentage with 0.44 per cent. The soils of Saurashtra region were calcareous in nature and alkaline in reaction. The pH2.5 mean value of Saurashtra region was 8.0, whereas Rajkot, Porbandar and Junagadh district show the lowest pH2.5 value and Amreli district show the highest pH2.5 value from soil of Saurashtra region. The EC2.5 of soil samples of Saurashtra region was found with men value of 0.53 dS/m, whereas the lowest EC2.5 was found in Morbi District and the highest EC2.5 was found in Porbandar district. According to Nutrient index value, Porbandar, Gir-Somnath and Devbhoomi Dwarka district covered very high area of having Organic carbon per cent. Bhavnagar, Amreli, Rajkot and Surendranagar found very low organic carbon per cent area. ABSTRACT Junagadh and Jamnagar covered medium area of having Organic carbon per cent. Morbi district covered high area of having Organic carbon per cent. The overall highly significant correlation of SOC with EC2.5 (r = -0.290**) and SOC with pH2.5 (r = 0.268**) were observed in Rajkot District. In Junagadh and Morbi district, there was significant correlation found between SOC and EC2.5 (r=-0.208) and (r = 0.335). Overall organic matter and Soil Nitrogen range were 0.19-2.69 per cent and 0.018-0.414 in soil of Saurashtra region. Maximum mean value of organic matter and soil nitrogen were found in Porbandar district (1.41%, 0.071%) and minimum mean value of organic matter and nitrogen were found in Surendranagar district (0.76%, 0.038%)
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT THROUGH ORGANIC SOURCES ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF CORIANDER (Coriandrum sativum L.) AND SOIL PROPERTIES UNDER ORGANIC FARMING
    (jau.junagadh, 2019-08) Kaneria Sagar Chandubhai; Dr. S. G. Savalia
    An experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous soil at Junagadh (Gujarat) to evaluate FYM, biofertilizers and botanicals for organic cultivation of coriander (var. Gujarat coriander 2). Nine treatments comprising of Control (T1), FYM @ 5 t/ha (T2), FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter (T3), FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB (T4), FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB + KSB (T5), FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB + KSB + SOB (T6), FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB + KSB + SOB + seaweed extract as foliar spray @ 3.5% at 30 and 60 DAS (T7), FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB + KSB + SOB + seaweed extract as foliar spray @ 3.5% at 30 and 60 DAS + banana pseudostem sap as foliar spray @ 1% at 30 and 60 DAS (T8) and FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB + KSB + SOB + seaweed extract as foliar spray @ 3.5% at 30 and 60 DAS + banana pseudostem sap as foliar spray @ 1% at 30 and 60 DAS + cow urine as foliar spray @ 5% at 30 and 60 DAS (T9). Biofertilizers @ 1 lit/ha were applied as a drenching in all plots except control at a time of sowing. Experiment was layed out in randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that the growth parameters, yield attributes and yield, quality parameters, content and uptake of nutrients, soil available nutrients and soil properties were significantly influenced by the various organic treatments. The experiment results revealed that the application of FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB + KSB + SOB + seaweed extract as foliar spray @ 3.5% at 30 and 60 DAS + banana pseudostem sap as foliar spray @ 1% at 30 and 60 DAS + cow urine as foliar spray @ 5% at 30 and 60 DAS (T9) was found superior in respect of growth parameters, yield attributes and quality parameters along with higher seed yield (1379, 1377 and 1378 kg/ha), stover yield (1585, 1581 and 1583 kg/ha) in 2018, 2019 and pooled results respectively, N, P, K, S and Mn content in seed, N, P, K, S, Mn, Zn and Cu content in stover, N, P, K, S, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake by seed and stover and total uptake by the crop, available N, P2O5, K2O, S, Fe and Mn, physical and biological properties of soil. The highest contribution of organic sources in seed yield of coriander was observed in FYM to the tune of 13.1 % followed by seaweed extract (4 %). Name of Student Major Guide Kaneria Sagar Chandubhai Dr. S. G. Savalia ABSTRACT Abstract II Application of FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB + KSB + SOB + seaweed extract as foliar spray @ 3.5% at 30 and 60 DAS + banana pseudostem sap as foliar spray @ 1% at 30 and 60 DAS (T8) enhanced the Fe, Zn and Cu content in seed, Fe content in stover, available Zn and Cu content in soil and organic carbon content in soil. It is concluded that higher production of coriander under organic farming can be secured by application of FYM @ 5 t/ha + Azotobacter + PSB + KSB + SOB + seaweed extract as foliar spray @ 3.5% at 30 and 60 DAS + banana pseudostem sap as foliar spray @ 1% at 30 and 60 DAS + cow urine as foliar spray @ 5% at 30 and 60 DAS (T9), which also maintain physico-chemical and biological properties of calcareous soil under South Saurashtra Agro-climatic conditions.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS AND PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA (PSB) ON YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) 2941
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-08) BAVALIYA ANKITABEN HAMIRBHAI; Dr. B. B. Kunjadia
    A field experiment entitled “Effect of phosphorus and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)” was conducted at Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh on clayey texture soils during rabi season of 2017-18 having low available N and medium of available P, K and S and alkaline in reaction (pH 7.98). The experiment comprised of 16 treatment combination having 4 levels of P (0, 30, 45 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 ) and 4 level of PSB (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 L PSB ha-1 ) carried out in factorial randomized block design replication at thrice. The experimental results revealed that application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 promoted growth parameters viz., plant height at 30 DAS (32.69 cm), 60 DAS (75.93 cm), 90 DAS (88.13 cm) and at harvest (89.75 cm), number of total tillers meter-1 row length (82.93), number of effective tillers meter-1 row length (60.00), spikelets per spike (15.39), length of spike (8.93 cm) at harvest of wheat. Dry matter at 30 DAS (3.38 g plant-1 ), 60 DAS (9.96 g plant-1 ), 90 DAS (19.03 g plant-1 ) and at harvest (28.62 g plant-1 ), and crop growth rate (CGR) at 30 DAS- 60 DAS (0.220 g plant-1 day-1 ) and 60 DAS-90 DAS (0.302 g plant-1 day-1 ) except 90 DAS - harvest (0.268 g plant-1 day-1 ) it was at found in P2 (45 kg P2O5 ha-1 ) . Similarly significantly higher grain yield (4519 kg ha-1 ) and straw yield (5340 kg ha-1 ) as well as, quality parameters viz., test weight (57.99 g) and protein yield (553.30 kg ha-1 ) were registered at 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 . Chemical parameters viz. plant analysis included grain P content (0.302%) and straw P content at 30 DAS (0.255%), 60 DAS (0.181%), 90 DAS (0.161%) and at harvest (0.143%). Uptake of N by grain (88.59 kg ha-1 ) and straw (31.83 kg ha-1 ), uptake of K by grain (31.97 kg ha-1 ) and straw (62.78 kg ha-1 ) and P of uptake by grain (13.80 kg ha-1 ) while in straw P uptake at 30 DAS (8.62 mg plant-1 ), 60 DAS (18.23 mg plant-1 ), 90 DAS (30.94 mg plant-1 ) and at harvest (41,47 mg plant-1 ). Soil analysis included soil available P at initial (41.20 kg ha-1 ) and 30 DAS (41.07 kg ha-1 ), 60 DAS (38.05 kg ha-1 ), 90 DAS (34.49 kg ha-1 ) and at harvest (29.56 kg ha-1 ). The experimental results show at that the application of PSB 1 L ha-1 promoted growth parameters viz., plant height at 30 DAS (31.47 cm), 60 DAS (74.81 cm), 90 DAS (88.06 cm) and at harvest (89.82 cm), number of total tiller meter-1 row length (79.25), number of effective tiller meter-1 row length (58.91), spikelet per spike (14.59), length of spike (8.29 cm) at harvest of wheat. Dry matter at 30 DAS (2.78 g plant-1 ), 60 DAS (9.38 g plant-1 ), 90 DAS (17.58 g plant-1 ) and at harvest (27.02 g plant-1 ), and crop growth rate (CGR) by P3 (60 kg P2O5 ha-1 ) 30 DAS- 60 DAS (0.219 g plant-1 day-1 ), 60 DAS-90 DAS (0.274 g plant-1 day-1 ) and 90 DAS - harvest (0.236 g plant-1 day-1 ). Higher grain yield (4540 kg ha-1 ) and straw yield (5248 kg ha 1 ) over the control, also enhanced quality parameters viz., test weight (58.18 g) and protein yield (561.26 kg ha-1 ) with application of PSB at 1 L ha-1 . Chemical parameters viz. (i) plant analysis included grain P content (0.292%) and straw P content at 30 DAS (0.257%), 60 DAS (0.191%), 90 DAS (0.160%) and at harvest (0.157%). Uptake of N by grain (89.80 kg ha-1 ) and straw (30.85 kg ha-1 ), uptake of K by grain (32.00 kg ha-1 ) and straw (61.49 kg ha-1 ) and uptake of P by grain (13.40 kg ha-1 ) while in straw P uptake at 30 DAS (7.59 mg plant-1 ), 60 DAS (18.18 mg plant-1 ), 90 DAS (28.60 mg plant-1 ) and at harvest (43.03 mg plant-1 ). (ii) Soil analysis included soil available P at 30 DAS (41.22 kg ha-1 ), 60 DAS (37.82 kg ha-1 ), 90 DAS (33.83 kg ha-1 ) and at harvest (28.97 kg ha -1 ) and microbial parameters of soil viz., PSB periodical count(1× 106 cfu g-1 soil) at 30 DAS (2.37), 60 DAS (3.60), 90 DAS (6.05) and at harvest (7.63) expect of application of 1.5 L PSB ha-1 . The combined effect of phosphorus and PSB found significant in respect of grain yield, no. of effective tiller meter-1 row length, P content in straw at 30 DAS and 60 DAS and P uptake by grain and 30 DAS, 60 DAS, 90 DAS and at harvest in straw with phosphorus P3 (60 kg P2O5 ha-1 ) and PSB2 (1 L PSB ha-1 ). Over all, the application of phosphorus at 60 kg ha-1 along with PSB at 1 L ha 1 plays a crucial role in improving yield and quality of wheat and maintain the phosphorus status
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF POTASSIUM AND POTASSIUM SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA (KSB) ON YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)
    (jau.junagadh, 2019-07) Maheta Aishwarya Atulkumar; Dr. J. J. Vaghani
    A field experiment entitled Effect of potassium and potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Var. GW 366 was conducted on clayey soils of Junagadh having status of low available nitrogen and medium available phosphorus and potassium during rabi season of 2017-18 at Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The experiment comprised of 16 treatments having four levels of potassium (K) (0, 30, 45 and 60 kg K2O ha-1) and four levels of potassium soluiblizing bacteria (KSB) (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 lit ha-1) carried out in factorial randomized block design (FRBD) replicated at thrice. The experimental results revealed that application of 60 kg K2O ha-1 (K3) as soil application promoted growth parameters viz., plant height 34.77 cm, 74.67 cm, 89.14 cm and 90.87 cm at 30, 60, 90 DAS and at harvest respectively, dry matter per plant at 3.29 g plant-1, 9.96 g plant-1, 19.51 g plant-1 and 29.31 g plant-1 at 30, 60, 90 DAS and at harvest respectively, crop growth rates (CGR) with 60 kg K2O ha-1 0.332 g plant-1 , 0.983 g plant-1 day-1 at 60 DAS-90 DAS and 90 DAS- harvest respectively except 30 DAS-60 DAS. Number of effective tillers per meter row (75.99) and total tillers per meter row (88.83), spikeletes per spike (16.06) and spike length (8.62 cm) also significant influenced by 60 kg K2O ha-1 ; yield and yield attributes viz., higher grain yield (4561 kg ha-1) and straw yield (6717 kg ha-1) over the 0 kg K2O ha-1, also enhanced quality parameters viz., test weight (61.03 g) and protein yield (547 kg ha-1) with K3 treatment while protein content was not affected by potassium application. Chemical parameters viz. (i) plant analysis included nitrogen, phosphorus content in grain and straw at harvest stage were found non significant with application of potassium while potassium content in straw at 30 DAS (3.04 %), 60 DAS (2.42 %), 90 DAS (1.89 %) and at harvest content in grain (0.524%) and straw (1.35 %) significantly affected by 60 kg K2O ha-1. Uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by grain and straw was found significant with 60 kg K2O ha-1as well as uptake of potassium by straw at 30 DAS (99.66 mg plant-1), 60 DAS (240.48 mg plant-1), 90 DAS (368.75 mg plant-1) and at harvest by grain (24.15 kg ha-1) and straw (90.92 kg ha-1), (ii) soil analysis available nitrogen and phosphorus at initial and harvest stage, while available potassium at 30DAS (326 kg ha-1), 60 DAS (319 kg ha-1), 90 DAS (304 kg ha-1) and at harvest (274 kg ha-1) and biological parameters of soil viz., KSB periodical count (1 × 106 cfu g-1 soil) at 30, 60, 90 DAS and at harvest remain unaffected by the application of potassium. The experimental results showed that application of KSB 1 lit ha-1 (KSB2) as soil application promoted growth parameters viz., plant height 33.78 cm, 74.78 cm, 87.51 cm and 88.81 cm at 30, 60, 90 DAS and at harvest respectively, dry matter per plant at 2.83 g plant-1 9.38 g plant-1, 17.78 g plant-1, 27.03 g plant-1, crop growth rates (CGR) by KSB 1 lit ha-1 (KSB2) 60 DAS-90 DAS (0.313 g plant-1 day-1) and 90 DAS-harvest (0.901 g plant-1 day-1) except 30 DAS-60 DAS. Number of effective tillers per meter row (75.99) and total tillers per meter row (88.83), spikeletes per spike (14.87) and spike length (8.17 cm) significant influenced by KSB 1 lit ha-1 (KSB2); yield and yield attributes viz., higher grain yield (4475 kg ha-1) and straw yield (5881 kg ha-1) over the KSB 0 lit ha-1 (KSB0), also enhanced quality parameters viz., test weight (57.99 g) and protein yield (548 kg ha-1) with application of KSB2 while protein content was not affected by KSB application. Chemical parameters viz. (i) plant analysis included nitrogen, phosphorus content in grain and straw at harvest stage were found non significant with application of KSB 1 lit ha-1 (KSB2), while in case of potassium also found non significant results were obtained for initial 30 DAS but later showed significant effect on potassium content in content in grain (0.501%) and straw at 60 DAS (2.37%), 90 DAS (1.87%) and at harvest (1.32%). Highest uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by grain and straw of wheat was observed significantly under treatment KSB2 i.e. KSB 1 lit ha-1, (ii) soil analysis included available major nutrients were altered by different potassium solubilizing bacteria treatment but not noticed significant variation in respect of available nitrogen and phosphorus after harvest while on available potassium at 30 DAS was also recorded non significant but at 60 DAS (310 kg ha-1), 90 DAS (287 kg ha-1) and at harvest (269 kg ha-1) results were found significant with respect to KSB 1 lit ha-1 (KSB2) treatment. and biological parameters of soil viz., KSB periodical count (1 × 106 cfu g-1 soil) the treatment KSB3 (KSB @ 1.5 lit ha-1) turned out be the superior by highest periodical KSB count (1 × 106 cfu g-1 soil) at 30 DAS (5.44), 60 DAS (6.48), 90 DAS (9.37) and at harvest (10.16). It could be concluded that soil application of potassium at 60 kg K2O ha-1 and KSB 1 lit ha-1 enhanced grain yield and quality of wheat and maintaining soil fertility with saving of fertilizer dose of potash.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SALINE IRRIGATION WATER ON GROWTH, NUTRIENTS COMPOSITION AND YIELD OF ONION (Allium cepa L.) VARIETIES
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-06) PATEL JANKI ARVINDKUMAR; Dr. L.C. VEKARIA
    A pot experiment was conducted at Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh to assess the “Effect of saline irrigation water on growth, nutrients composition and yield of onion (Allium Cepa L.) varieties” during the winter season of 2017-18. The pot experiment comprised four levels of salinity viz., <2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and five different varieties viz., V1- GJWO-3, V2- GJRO-11, V3-Talaja red, V4- Pilli patti and V5- PWF-131 in Factorial Completely Randomized Design with replicated three times. The experimental soil was medium black calcareous, clayey in nature which was slightly alkaline in reaction, pH2.5 8.0, EC2.5 0.58 dS m-1, low in available nitrogen (242 kg ha-1), medium in phosphorus (34.20 kg ha-1), high in available potassium (298 kg ha-1), sulphur (23.50 kg ha-1). Micro nutrient status was medium in available iron (6.25 mg kg-1), high in manganese (15.20 mg kg-1), low in available zinc (0.45 mg kg-1) and high in available copper (1.25 mg kg-1). The experimental result revealed that the growth, yield and yield attribute, quality parameters, bio-chemical parameters, nutrient contents and nutrient uptakes were significantly influenced by the different varieties of onion. The highest plant height (49.33 cm), fresh straw yield (37.03 g), fresh weight of bulb (39.21 g), volume of bulb (25.67 cm3), bulb dry weight (3.90 g) and quality parameters viz., neck thickness and TSS among different tested varieties of onion. Bio-chemical parameters viz., the highest proline accumulation (0.96 μmole / gf.wt) was found with variety V4 (Pilli patti). Among the different tested varieties, variety V4 (Pilli patti) produced significantly higher RWC, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content in comparision of onion at 45 DAT. The sodium concentration in leaves of onion observed lowest (0.173 %) and potassium and calcium highest (0.213 % and 0.584 %) at 45 DAT with variety V4 (Pilli patti). The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur content in bulb and straw at harvest was remain unaffected to different variety of onion. In case of calcium and magnesium content found significant with variety V4 (Pilli patti) in bulb ABSTRACT and straw at harvest, while sodium content found lowest with variety V4 (Pilli patti) in straw at harvest. Na+/K+ ratio observed significant lowest with variety V4 (Pilli patti) in bulb and straw at harvest, while Ca++/Na+ ratio observed significant highest with variety V4 (Pilli patti) in leaves at 45 DAT and at harvest. The concentration of macro (N, P, K and S) and micro (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) nutrient in bulb and straw at harvest remained unaffected due to varietal difference. The maximum uptake of major nutrients (N, P and K) and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were recorded with variety V4 (Pilli patti) in bulb, straw and its total uptake. Application of saline irrigation water treatment S1 (<2.0 dS m-1) was observed superior in rest of the levels in plant height (44.73 cm), no. of leaves per plant (5.30), fresh straw weight (34.40 g), fresh weight of bulb (33.77 g), volume of bulb (22.55 cm3) and quality parameters viz., neck thickness and TSS among different salinity levels recorded significant at S1 (<2.0 dS m-1), in case of proline accumulation (0.75 μmole/gf.wt) was found highest S4 (8.0 dS m-1), while RWC, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content observed significant at salinity level S1 (<2.0 dS m-1), than other salinity levels in onion at 45 DAT. Sodium content observed lowest and calcium highest at S1 (<2.0 dS m-1) in leaves at 45 DAT. The concentration of macro (N, P, K and S) and micro (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) nutrients in bulb and straw at harvest were remain unaffected. In case of calcium and magnesium content found significant at salinity level S1 (<2.0 dS m-1) in bulb and straw at harvest, while sodium content found lowest at level S1 (<2.0 dS m-1), in bulb and straw at harvest. Micro nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were remain unaffected by different levels of saline irrigation water. Lowest Na+/K+ ratio and highest Ca++/Na+ ratio found at level S1 (<2.0 dS m-1) in leaves at 45 DAT and in bulb and straw at harvest. Maximum uptake of major nutrients (N, P and K) and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were recorded highter at level S1 (<2.0 dS m-1) in bulb, straw and its total uptake. The various macro and micro nutrient available in soil found non-significant to different salinity levels. The significantly lowest EC2.5 and soil pH2.5 were recorded under application of saline irrigation water S1 (<2.0 dS m-1) after harvest of crop. Based on the result, it can be concluded that the variety V4 (Pilli patti) was found the tolerant onion cultivar responding to application of saline irrigation water. This variety (Pilli patti) perform better with different salinity tolerance criteria like the highest mean bulb yield (20.90 g plant-1), as well as mean salinity index (55.75 %) and lower value of yield decline at high salinity level EC (6.40 dS m-1) for 50 % threshold yield. Being the lower value of regression slope (b) for this variety, the yield of this variety is least sensitive to salinity as compared to remaining other varieties.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SALINE IRRIGATION WATER ON BIO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION AND YIELD OF TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum L.) VARIETIES
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-06) Shivani Thakur; Dr. K. B. Parmar
    The most of the soils in Saurashtra region are calcareous and salty. Soil salinity is a global menace to plant growth and development causing significant economic losses to crop. Tomato is moderately salt tolerant and one of the best crops to study salt tolerance due to its well-known genetics and effortlessly transforming capabilities. Keeping this in mind, the present investigation entitled “Effect of saline irrigation water on bio-chemical parameters, nutrient composition and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) varieties” was undertaken at the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science during Rabi, 2017. An experiment conducted consisting of four different levels of salinity viz., < 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 with four different varieties viz., V1: GT-6, V2: JT-3, V3: AT-3 and V4: DVRT-2 laid out in Completely Randomized Design (Factorial) with three replications. The results revealed that highest value of yield and yield attributes i.e. fruit yield, stalk yield, plant height, no. of branches per plant, no. of fruits per plant and fruit weight were ascertained under S1 (< 2.0 dS m-1) salinity level. Likewise, bio-chemical parameters viz., highest RWC, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content were attained under S1 (< 2.0 dS m-1) salinity. The highest proline and TSS content noted under higher saline water treatment, S4 (8.0 dS m-1). Lower Na+/K+ and highest Ca2+/Na+ ratio noted at S1 (< 2.0 dS m-1) level in leaves at 45 DAT and in fruit & stalk at harvest. Application of saline water treatment had no significant effect on content of macro (N, P and K) and micro (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) nutrients in fruit & stalk at harvest while significantly higher values of uptake of major (N, P and K) and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) by fruit, stalk and their total uptake were obtained under S1 (< 2.0 dS m-1) salinity level. Soil EC (ECe and EC2.5) were also influenced by saline water treatments while, soil pH (pH2.5 and pHe) and soil available nutrients were remain unaffected. The different tested varieties of tomato had pronounced effect on yield and yield attributes, bio-chemical parameters and nutrient uptake. Variety V1 (GT-6) reported highest fresh (133.16 g plant-1) and dry fruit yield (7.99 g plant-1), while highest fresh and dry stalk yield (145.00 g plant-1 and 21.82 g plant-1), plant height (66.42 cm) and no. of branches per plant (5.92) registered under V3 (AT-3) variety and no. of fruits per plant (6.58) along with fruit weight (23.25 g) noted under V4 (DVRT-2) variety. Bio-chemical parameter i.e. RWC, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were registered significantly higher with variety V1 (GT-6) while proline accumulation and TSS content were obtained highest under V4 (DVRT-2) variety. Varied cultivars of tomato could not manifested their significant effect on content of macro (N, P, K and S) and micro (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) nutrients in fruit and stalk of tomato. However, significant influence were found with Na and Ca content at 45 DAT in leaves and at harvest in fruit and stalk of tomato. Among all varieties, variety V2 (JT-3) registered lower values for Na+/K+ ratio and higher values for Ca2+/Na+ ratio at 45 DAT in leaves and at harvest in fruit and stalk. Significant response were found in relation to maximum uptake of primary (N, P and K) and micro (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) nutrients by fruit, stalk and their total uptake by tomato plant at harvest. The combined effect of salinity and variety were found significant, in relation to yield and yield attributes except no. of branches. The TSS content, proline content, RWC, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content, Na content at 45 DAT and at harvest showed significant response to the interactive effect of variety and salinity. Also, significant results were produced for Na+/K+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratio in fruit & stalk at harvest of tomato. On the basis of our result findings and salinity tolerant indices, variety V1 (GT-6) found to be superior with respect to different salinity tolerance criteria viz., highest mean seed yield (122.43 g plant-1), mean salinity index (74.05 g plant-1) and lowest value of yield decline at high salinity level EC (9.19 dS m-1) for 50% threshold yield. As the value of regression slope (b) is highest for this variety, it can be said that yield of this variety is quite tolerant to salinity as compared to other tested varieties of tomato. Overall, relative tolerance of tested tomato varieties in sequential order of: GT-6 > JT-3 > AT-3 > DVRT-2 against saline irrigations upto EC 8.0 dS m-1.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF POTASSIUM ON GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L. ) UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITIONS
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2005-03) Shri M. B. Viradiya; Dr. B. A. Golakiya
    Pot and field trails were conducted during kharif 2002-03 with a view to study the effect of K on groimdnut under salt stress conditions. Galvanized pot of 30 x 60 x 75 cm3 filled with 40 kg normal soil in two different set, foior salinity levels (EC 2, 4, 8, and 12 dS m-i)i.e. Si, 82, S3 85 S4, respectively, were developed by using salt mixture of NaCl and Na2S04 in ratio of 4 : 1, where as four sodicity levels (ESP, 10, 20, 40 and 60) i.e. Ei, E2, E3 85 E4, respectively, were developed by using sodium bicarbonate. Three levels of K (25, 50 and 100 kg K2O ha"i) along with control were applied in both salinity and sodicity levels. For the field experiments, saline and sodic soils were selected with EC (1:2:5) 4.70 and ESP 21.56, respectively, with six treatments using three treatments of K i^e. K 25, 50 and 100 kg K,0 ha k one treatment of K and Zn i.e 1 no kgKtOha-l + 10 kgZnS04ha-l and one treatment of FYM alone @lo t ha-1 along with control. In pot experiments the yield of pod and haulm of groundnut significantly decreased at S4 levels to the tune of 167.24 and 233.74 per cent, respectively. Application of K (100 kg K2O ha-i) significantly increased it to the tune of 34.20 and 32.44 per cent, respectively The content and uptake of K, Ca and Mg at 30, 60 and 90 DAS decreased and content and uptake of Na by groundnut pod and haulm increased significantly at S4 level. Application of 100 kg K2O ha-i significantly increased the content and uptake of K, Ca and Mg and decreased the content and uptake of Na. The Na/K ratio at 30, 60 and 90 DAS significantly increased with 84 levels and significantly decreased with application of 100 kg K2O ha-i Interaction effect of K and salinity levels were also found significant in case of yield, content and uptake of K, Ca, Mg and Na at 30, 60 and 90 DAS by haulm and pod and Na/K ratio at 30, 60 and 90 DAS. The pod and haulm yields decreased significantly with sodicity levels E4. The decrease in pod and haulm yields were upto 406.32 and 275.42 per cent, respectively, at sodicity level E4. Application of 100 kg K2O ha-i significantly increased the pod and haulm yields to the tune of 50,56 and 44^05 pe^r tpsppctively, The content and uptake of K, Ca and Mg at 30, 60 and 90 DAS by groundnut pod and haulm decreased and content and uptake of Na increased with sodicity level E4. The Na/K ratio at 30, 60 and 90 DAS also increased significantly with sodicity level E4. Application of K @100 kg K2O ha-i significantly increased the content and uptake of K, Ca and Mg at 30, 60 and 90 DAS by groundnut pod and haulm and decreased content and uptake of Na and Na/k ratio at 30, 60 and 90 DAS. Interaction effect of K and sodicity levels was also found significant in case of yield, content and uptake of K, Ca, Mg and Na at 30, 60 and 90 DAS by groundnut pod and haulm and Na/K ratio at 30, 60 and 90 DAS. In field trails pod and haulm yields increased to the tune of 19.78 and 8.16 in saline as well as 28.14 and 16.37 per cent in sodic soil condition, respectively, due to application of 100 kg K2O ha h Number of mature and immature pods per plants and dry mature yields at 30, 60 and 90 DAS significantly increased with treatment T5 (NP +100 kg K2O ha-i + 10 kg Zn ha-i) in saline and sodic soil condition. The content and uptake of N, P, K, Ca and Mg at 30, 60, 90 and at harvest significantly increased with application of 100 kg K2O ha-i + 10 kg Zn ha-i in saline and sodic soils. Available K significantly increased with treatment T5 in sline soil whereas, available N, P and K significantly increased with treatment T5 in sodic soil.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “SOIL PROPERTIES AND YIELD OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) AS INFLUENCED BY USE OF WATER HAVING VARIABLE SALINITY AND SODICITY”
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2018-07) Rodda Chandana Devi; Dr. J. V. Polara
    Key words: Wheat, salinity levels, sodicity levels, growth, yield attributes and yield, quality, nutrient uptake and available nutrients and soil properties A pot experiment was conducted at Net House, Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh to assess the “Soil properties and yield of wheat crop as influenced by use of water having variable salinity and sodicity” during the rabi- 2017. The experiment comprising of four levels of saline irrigation water viz., 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1 and four levels of sodic irrigation water viz., 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 SAR in completely randomized design (Factorial) replicated three times were tested with respect to growth, yield attributes and yield, uptake of nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu,) by grain and straw of wheat crop and status of soil available nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) and exchangeable and water soluble nutrients (K, Ca, Mg and Na) after harvest of the crop. The experimental soil was clayey texture, slightly alkaline in reaction (pH2.5 8.08), without having any problem of salinity (EC2.5 0.48 dS m-1) From the fertility point of view the soil was moderately supplied with organic carbon (6.5 g kg-1), available nitrogen (297 kg ha-1), phosphorus (39.20 kg ha-1), but was high in available potassium (425 kg ha-1). Among the DTPA extractable micronutrients, the experimental soil was found medium with respect to Fe (5.91 mg kg-1), Zn (0.75 mg kg-1) and Mn (8.72 mg kg-1), but was high with respect to Cu (0.62 mg kg-1). Application of different levels of saline irrigation water produced significant effect on growth, yield attributes and yield, quality, uptake of nutrients, available nutrients and soil properties after harvest of wheat crop. The maximum plant height, number of tillers per plant, length of main spike, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, number of grains per spikelet, days to heading and grain and straw yield was observed with EC-2 dS m-1, where as germination percentage and days to maturity was unaffected by different levels of saline irrigation water. The quality parameters like test weight and protein content were found maximum with the saline irrigation water level of EC-2 dS m-1. The maximum concentration and uptake of the macro (N, P and K) and micro (Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) nutrients of grain and straw of wheat crop was observed with the EC-2 dS m-1. The available macro (N, P and K) and micro (Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) nutrients of soil after harvest of the crop was found maximum with the saline irrigation water level of EC-2 dS m-1. The water soluble and exchangeable Ca, Mg and K were found maximum with EC-2 dS m-1, where as water soluble and exchangeable Na and soil properties like EC2.5, ECe, pH2.5, pHs and ESP found maximum with EC-8 dS m-1. Application of different levels of sodic irrigation water produced significant effect on growth, yield attributes and yield, quality, uptake of nutrients, available nutrients and soil properties after harvest of the wheat crop. The maximum plant height, number of tillers per plant, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spikelet, days to heading and grain and straw yield was observed with SAR- 5.0, where as length of main spike, number of grains per spike, germination percentage and days to maturity remain unaffected by different levels of sodic irrigation water. The quality parameters like test weight and protein content were found maximum with the sodic irrigation water level of SAR- 5.0. The maximum concentration and uptake of the macro (N, P and K) and micro (Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) nutrients of grain and straw of wheat crop was observed with the SAR- 5.0. The available macro (N, P and K) and micro (Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) nutrients and organic carbon of soil after harvest of the crop was found maximum with the sodic irrigation water level of SAR-5.0. The water soluble and exchangeable K was found maximum with SAR- 5.0, where as water soluble and exchangeable Ca, Mg and Na found maximum with SAR- 20.0. The soil properties like ECe (dS m-1), pH2.5, pHs and ESP of the soil was found minimum with SAR- 5.0 and found maximum with SAR- 20.0 and where as EC2.5 remain unaffected by sodic irrigation water. The interaction effect between different levels of saline and sodic irrigation water was not found significant on growth, yield attributes and yield, quality parameters but concentration and uptake of N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu by grain and straw, except concentration of Fe, Zn and Cu in grain and Zn in straw produced their significant effect on available N, P2O5, K2O and Zn and water soluble cations Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, exchangeable Na+ and pH2.5 of soil after harvest of wheat crop. Significantly the highest Fe, Zn and Cu in grain and Zn content in straw were found under C1×S1 (EC-2.0 dS m-1 and SAR-5.0) and the lowest with C4×S4 (EC-8.0 dS m-1 and SAR-20.0). Significantly the highest water soluble and exchangeable Ca++ and Mg++ were observed with C4×S1 (EC-8.0 dS m-1 and SAR-5.0) and the lowest with C1×S4 (EC-2.0 dS m-1 and SAR-20.0). The water soluble and exchangeable Na+ was found significantly highest with C4×S4 (EC-8.0 dS m-1 and SAR-20.0) and the lowest with C1×S1 (EC-2.0 dS m-1 and SAR-5.0). Water soluble K+ was found significantly highest with C1×S1 (EC-2.0 dS m-1 and SAR-5.0) and the lowest with C4×S4 (EC-8.0 dS m-1 and SAR-20.0). The interaction effect of saline and sodic irrigation water was not found significant on soil properties like CEC, ESP, EC2.5, ECe dS m-1 and pHs, but pH2.5 was significantly influenced and found maximum with C4×S4 (EC-8.0 dS m-1 and SAR-20.0).