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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON FEEDING PRACTICES AND MINERAL STATUS OF LACTATING JAFFRABADI BUFFALO IN JUNAGADH DISTRICT OF GUJARAT 2830
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-06) NALIYAPARA HARDIKKUMAR BHUPATBHAI; H. H. SAVSANI
    The present study was conducted to study on feeding practices and minerals status of lactating Jaffrabadi buffaloes of Junagadh district of Gujrat. Jaffrabadi buffalo is one of the heaviest buffalo breed in the world. Home tract of the breed is Gir forest in Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Conventional feeding practices followed by the majority of farmers and these are based on available green fodder, dry fodder and concentrate that is why per animal productivity is low India. The deficiency of certain minerals may not affect crop yields but their availability from such forages may be inadequate for the requirement of livestock. It is, therefore, necessary to generate information on mineral status, zone wise to identify deficiencies and toxicity. Aim of the present study is to survey feeding practices followed by lactating Jaffrabadi buffalo owners in Junagadh district, to assess proximate constituents of feeds and fodder, to assess the mineral status of soil, feeds/fodder and lactating Jaffrabadi buffaloes and to study the soil-plant-animal relationship in with the mineral status of the area. For the present study, 05 talukas of Junagadh district of Gujarat were selected randomly, 04 villages from each taluka and 3 respondents from each selected village. Total 20 villages were selected randomly for the study and 60 Jaffrabadi buffalo owners were interviewed to generate knowledge on feeding practices adopted for their lactating Jaffrabadi buffaloes. Samples of soil, feeds and blood collected and analyses as pre standard procedure to know the status of the minerals in the study area. The study showed that a majority of respondents 60 % and 75 % having small to medium size land holding and small hard size (<5 buffaloes). The survey work revealed that most of the respondents reared the animals on stall feeding and supplementation of green maize, marvel grass, jowar hay, groundnut haulms and cottonseed cake. Generally, 18.23±1.70 kg available green fodders, 11.72±0.43 kg available dry fodders and 7.29±0.23 kg concentrate were fed daily to lactating Jaffrabadi buffaloes. Average DMI of lactating Jaffrabadi buffaloes are 20.04±0.28 kg/day.The concentrate was fed twice in a day at a time of milking and the majority of respondents (95%) used readymade concentrate mixture. Soaking of concentrate was practiced by the majority (65%) of respondents. Majority of respondents were not practicing mineral supplementation (88.33%), salt supplementation (81.67%) and deworming (51.67%) to their buffaloes. Among the soil minerals, Ca (0.98±0.04%), Mg (0.24±0.02%), Cu (2.28±0.13 ppm) and Fe (3.71±0.46 ppm) were found above the critical level while, P (0.0024±0.00015%) and Zn (1.19±0.13ppm) were found below the critical level. The average Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn content in green fodders, dry fodders and concentrate were, 0.32±0.03%, 0.95±0.06% and 0.33±0.08%, 0.14±0.01, 0.13±0.02 and 0.40±0.02, 0.25±0.02, 0.54±0.02 and 0.31±0.02, 22.92±6.40, 21.34±4.61 and 20.80±2.42, 467.90±71.16, 1310.27±116.08 and 241.78±22.92 and 32.49±1.65, 22.63±1.12 and 46.07±2.12, respectively. The Ca was found deficient in maize (0.23%), sorghum (0.18%), gajraj grass (0.24%), cottonseed cake (0.16%), cottonseed (0.12%), sugarcane (0.06%) and maize cake (0.25%). Whereas marvel grass (0.40%), bajra (1.02%), groundnut haulms (0.95%) and conc. mix (0.36%) were adequate in calcium. The P was found deficient in maize (0.15%), sorghum (0.17%), marvel grass (0.12%), gajraj grass (0.16%), sugarcane (0.07%) and groundnut haulms (0.12%). Whereas, cottonseed cake (0.40%), cottonseed (0.34%) and conc. mix (0.38%) were adequate in phosphorus. Most of the feedstuff was found adequate in magnesium except, green jowar (0.18%), sugarcane (0.05%) and maize cake (0.10%). Most of the feedstuff was found adequate in copper except, sugarcane (5.90ppm) and maize cake (5.09ppm). All the feedstuff was found adequate in iron. The Zn was found deficient in marvel grass (28.72ppm), sugarcane (12.03 ppm) and groundnut haulms (20.73 ppm). Whereas, maize (33.95 ppm), sorghum (30.57 ppm), gajraj grass (70.47 ppm), cottonseed cake (45.85 ppm), cottonseed (43.67 ppm) and maize cake (37.97 ppm), conc. mix (74.10 ppm) was adequate in zinc. Among the blood plasma minerals of lactating Jaffrabadi buffaloes, Ca (12.58±0.41mg/dL), P (6.37±0.16mg/dL), Mg (5.61±0.21mg/dL), Cu (1.11±0.13 ppm), Fe (4.15±0.23ppm) and Zn (3.30±0.39ppm) were found in normal level. Soil calcium having a significant positive relation with that of blood and dry fodder calcium. Blood magnesium having a significant positive relation with dry fodder magnesium. Soil iron having a significant positive relation with blood iron and highly significant positive relation with green fodder iron.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON FEEDING PRACTICES AND MINERALS STATUS OF LACTATING BUFFALOES IN JAMNAGAR DISTRICT OF GUJARAT 2828
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-06) BLOCH RAMEEZ KADARBHAI; H. H. SAVSANI
    A survey of Jamnagar district of Gujarat state was conducted during September 2018 to December 2018 for 1) survey of feeding practices followed by dairy farmers in Jamnagar district, 2) to assess proximate constituents of feeds and fodder, 3) to assess mineral status of soil, feeds/fodder and lactating buffaloes and 4) to evaluate soil-plant-animal relationship. The survey was conducted in five talukas viz. Jamnagar, Kalawad, Dhrol, Lalpur and Jam-jodhpur. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Four villages were selected at random in each taluka, which were geographically located apart in direction and truly represented the animal husbandry practices of the taluka, for collection of samples of soil, feeds and fodder as well as blood plasma for lactating buffaloes. In each village, three respondents were selected at random. For this purpose, those respondents were considered, who owned farm, own grown feeds and fodder and lactating buffalo. The selected farmers were interviewed and the desired information was collected in the pro-forma developed for the purpose. The survey work revealed that most of the dairy animal owners/farmers reared their lactating buffaloes on stall feeding and supplementation of green maize, jinjvo, lucerne, juwar hay, groundnut straw and local mixed grasses collected from the wasteland, as the basal roughages. Generally, 16 kg green fodder and 7 dry fodder were fed daily to lactating buffaloes. Average DMI of lactating buffaloes is 16.33 ± 0.58 kg. The quantity of concentrate (kg/day) fed to lactating buffaloes ranged between 3.92 to 11.38 kg, with the overall average being 7.90 kg in lactating buffaloes. The proximate composition and certain mineral content were within the normal range. Various concentrates like cottonseed cake, cottonseed, and maize cake are supplement with/without wheat bran or maize bran. Among the macro minerals, Ca (1.13%) and Mg (0.36%) were above critical level while, P (0.0019%) was found below the critical level, and among the micro minerals, Cu (2.23 ppm) was found above the critical level and Fe (1.97 ppm) and Zn (0.64 ppm) were found below the critical level of soil in Jamnagar district. The average calcium content in concentrates was low. Cottonseed contained just around 0.11 per cent Ca. Lucerne (0.90%) had higher Ca content. Green fodder viz. maize (0.31%) and jinjvo (0.47%) were low in Ca. Ca content in dry roughage like jowar hay (0.21%) was low. However, gotars of groundnut (0.98%) was exceptionally high in Ca. The concentrate ingredients commonly fed to lactating buffaloes contained high P (0.47%). The values of P in green fodder (0.19%) and dry fodder (0.14%) were much lower than concentrates. Magnesium was rich in green fodder (0.36%), dry fodder (0.54%) as well as concentrates (0.27%) especially in groundnut straw (0.59%). The average Cu level was recorded in pasture grass (20.88 ppm), jowar hay (6.79 ppm) and groundnut straw (35.51 ppm). The green roughages contained Cu above the 10 ppm. Green maize (16.43 ppm) and cottonseed cake (16.31 ppm) contained a high level of Cu. Distribution of iron was found to be unique in the sense that it exceeds the requirement in all the feeds and fodder even straw were rich for iron. Green maize, green jinjvo and lucerne were contained 306.89, 698.22 and 531.12 ppm, respectively. Groundnut straw is quite a good source of Fe. Groundnut straw (21.85 ppm) and jowar hay (27.25 ppm) were low in Zn; however, cottonseed cake was a somewhat good source of Zn. Zinc content in green fodder varied from 13.39 to 50.92 ppm. Whole cottonseed cake (42.27 ppm) were higher in Zn as compared to roughages. Macro minerals concentration viz. Ca, Mg and P in the blood plasma of lactating buffaloes were above the critical level and among the micro minerals, Fe and Zn were found above the critical level while Cu was observed deficient in the blood plasma of lactating buffaloes. Blood plasma calcium having a significantly positive relation with dry fodder and concentrates calcium. Whereas, blood plasma copper having a highly significantly positive relation with soil copper in Jamnagar district.
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF EXOGENOUS FIBROLYTIC ENZYMES SUPPLEMENTATION IN TOTAL MIXED RATION ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN GIR CALVES, 2998
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-07) KADAM SANDIP JAGANNATH; D. D. GARG
    The present study was carried out with the objective of investigating the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation on performance of Gir calves. Total fifteen Gir calves were randomly divided into three groups viz. T1 (Control), T2 and T3. Calves in T1 group were fed on Total Mixed Ration (TMR) without any supplementation of fibrolytic enzymes and treatment groups were fed on TMR supplemented with fibrolytic enzyme @ 0.025% and 0.05% in T2 and T3 groups, respectively for a period of 90 days. Average dry matter intake (kg/d, kg/100 kg body weight and g/kg W0.75) was not affected by fibrolytic enzyme supplementation. However, highest dry matter intake was observed in T2 group followed by T3 and T1 groups. Statistical analysis of data on average total gain (kg) and average daily gain (g) revealed that T2 and T3 group attained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight gain and average daily gain as compared to control but non-significant effect was observed between T2 and T3 group. The highest total gain in body weight and average daily gain of experimental Gir calves were observed in T2 group. The efficiency of feed utilization (DM intake per kg gain) was better in T2 and T3 group than control group but treatment difference between T2 and T3 was non-significant. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and cellulose were significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals of T2 group than control group but non- significant effect was observed between T2 and T3 groups and also between T3 and control group. While, digestibility of crude protein, ether extract and nitrogen free extract were not affected by fibrolytic enzymes supplementation. Digestibility of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and hemi-cellulose were significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals of T2 and T3 group than control group but treatment difference between T2 and T3 was non-significant. There was no effect of supplementation of fibrolytic enzyme on Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) intake. While average Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) intake of experimental Gir calves were increased significantly (p<0.01) for T2 and T3 groups than control group (T1). Between enzymes supplemented group T2 had significantly higher TDN intake than T3. The results for rumen fermentation pattern revealed that strained rumen liquor pH was significantly decreased in enzyme treated group (T2 and T3) than control group but treatment difference (T2 and T3) was non-significant. While there was significant (p<0.01) increase in TVFA concentration and total nitrogen in both enzymes supplemented group (T2 and T3) than control group. Enzyme supplementation had non-significant effect on average concentration of NH3-N and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) however, TCA-N was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T2 group than control group but treatment difference T3 and T2. Fibrolytic enzymes supplementation had no effect on haemato-biochemical parameters, includes, Hb (%), PCV(%), glucose (mg/dL), total protein (g/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL) and cholesterol (mg/dL). All haemato-biochemical parameters were in normal range. It could be concluded that by supplementing exogenous fibrolytic enzymes daily to the ration of calves exert positive effects on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and extent of ruminal fermentation without affecting haemato biochemicals parameters.
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF EXOGENOUS FIBROLYTIC ENZYMES SUPPLEMENTATION IN TOTAL MIXED RATION ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN GIR CALVE
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-07) KADAM SANDIP JAGANNATH; D. D. GARG
    The present study was carried out with the objective of investigating the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation on performance of Gir calves. Total fifteen Gir calves were randomly divided into three groups viz. T1 (Control), T2 and T3. Calves in T1 group were fed on Total Mixed Ration (TMR) without any supplementation of fibrolytic enzymes and treatment groups were fed on TMR supplemented with fibrolytic enzyme @ 0.025% and 0.05% in T2 and T3 groups, respectively for a period of 90 days. Average dry matter intake (kg/d, kg/100 kg body weight and g/kg W0.75) was not affected by fibrolytic enzyme supplementation. However, highest dry matter intake was observed in T2 group followed by T3 and T1 groups. Statistical analysis of data on average total gain (kg) and average daily gain (g) revealed that T2 and T3 group attained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight gain and average daily gain as compared to control but non-significant effect was observed between T2 and T3 group. The highest total gain in body weight and average daily gain of experimental Gir calves were observed in T2 group. The efficiency of feed utilization (DM intake per kg gain) was better in T2 and T3 group than control group but treatment difference between T2 and T3 was non-significant. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and cellulose were significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals of T2 group than control group but non- significant effect was observed between T2 and T3 groups and also between T3 and control group. While, digestibility of crude protein, ether extract and nitrogen free extract were not affected by fibrolytic enzymes supplementation. Digestibility of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and hemi-cellulose were significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals of T2 and T3 group than control group but treatment difference between T2 and T3 was non-significant. There was no effect of supplementation of fibrolytic enzyme on Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) intake. While average Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) intake of experimental Gir calves were increased significantly (p<0.01) for T2 and T3 groups than control group (T1). Between enzymes supplemented group T2 had significantly higher TDN intake than T3. The results for rumen fermentation pattern revealed that strained rumen liquor pH was significantly decreased in enzyme treated group (T2 and T3) than control group but treatment difference (T2 and T3) was non-significant. While there was significant (p<0.01) increase in TVFA concentration and total nitrogen in both enzymes supplemented group (T2 and T3) than control group. Enzyme supplementation had non-significant effect on average concentration of NH3-N and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) however, TCA-N was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T2 group than control group but treatment difference T3 and T2. Fibrolytic enzymes supplementation had no effect on haemato-biochemical parameters, includes, Hb (%), PCV(%), glucose (mg/dL), total protein (g/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL) and cholesterol (mg/dL). All haemato-biochemical parameters were in normal range. It could be concluded that by supplementing exogenous fibrolytic enzymes daily to the ration of calves exert positive effects on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and extent of ruminal fermentation without affecting haemato biochemicals parameters.
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    EVALUATION OF GARLIC AND GINGER AS FEED ADDITIVES ON PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKS 1966
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2014-12) VIJAY K. KARANGIYA; Dr. H. H. SAVSANI
    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of incorporation of garlic and ginger in diet of broiler birds. Two hundred forty cobb-400 broilers chicks were randomly divided into four groups with three replications of twenty birds each. Each group was assigned with one of the four dietary treatments (Ti, T2, T3 and T4) for a period of 42 days. The experimental birds under control group Ti were fed as per BIS (1992). While in group T2, group T3 and group T4 were additionally supplemented with 1% garlic, 1% ginger and combination of 1% garlic and 1% ginger respectively, with control diet. Average initial and final body weights of birds of experiment were 40.10 ± 0.05 & 1646.68 ± 1.15, 40.00 ± 0.02 & 1689.32 ± 52.88, 40.02 ± 0.05 & 1758.89 ± 38.06 and 40.12 ± 0.16 & 1638.26 ± 59.01 g in the Ti, T2, T3 and T4 experimental groups, respectively. The average values for weekly body weight gain (g^ird/week) and total body weight gain (g^ird) were 267.76 ± 8.62 and 1606.70 ± 1.83 in Ti, 274.88 ± 18.87 and 1649.17 ± 53.08 in T2, 286.20 ± 11.49 and 1724.17 ± 33.78 in T3 and 266.34 ± 10.64 and 1598.36 ± 59.26 in T4 experimental groups, respectively. The total weight gain during the experiment was highest in T3 group followed by T2 group which differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of Ti and T4 group. The values for overall feed intake were 3270.56 ± 54.48, 3259.12 ± 81.83, 3367.77 ± 136.43 and 3395.61 ± 155.74 g/bird in Ti, T2, T3 and T4 groups respectively. The total feed intake during the experiment was highest in T4 followed by T3 and Ti which significantly (P < 0.05) higher from the T2. The mean values for PGR of broilers were found to be 1.92± 0.02, 1.87± 0.06, 1.84 ± 0.03 and 1.99 ± 0.01 in Ti, T2, T3 and T4 experimental groups, respectively. PGR showed non-significant difference among different experimental groups. The corresponding values of average dressing percentage were 65.66 ± 1.45, 67.00 ± 0.57, 65.33 ± 0.33 and 65.66 ± 0.33 in Ti, T2, T3 and T4 experimental groups, respectively. There is significantly (P < 0.05) higher dressing percent in group T2 from the Ti group. While dressing percent of T2, T3 and T4 groups are at par. Weights of organs like heart, liver, intestine, gizzard and shank differ significantly (P < 0.05) among experimental groups. Statistical analysis of sensory evaluation suggests that T3 group showed significant (P < 0.05) higher values for all parameters among different treatment groups. Definite pattern in different parameter values also suggest that ginger affect carcass quality positively.
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS FIBROLYTIC ENZYMES ON IN-VITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF DRY FORAGES 1741
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2013-07) SIPAI SARFARAJ H.; K. S. DUTTA
    An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of neutral cellulase and fungal xylanase on in-vitro digestibility of dry jowar fodder and dry pasture grass. The experimental study was carried out at Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. Neutral cellulase and fungal xylanase enzymes were procured from Aumgene Biosciences Pvt. Ltd., Surat, Gujarat. Samples of dry jowar fodder and pasture were collected. Samples were ground separately to reduce particle size (0.5mm) and subjected to proximate and Van Soest analysis. Different samples of dry jowar fodder and dry pasture grass were prepared according to different concentrations of neutral cellulase and fungal xylanase. Rumen liquor for in-vitro studies were collected in duplicate from two castrated bulls maintained on dry jowar and pasture grass feeding with the help of stomach tube by applying suction. During in vitro studies, trials were conducted to estimate various rumen fermentation parameters such as total gas production, methane production along with in vitro DM degradability, in vitro OM degradability, in vitro NDF degradability and in vitro ADF degradability, ammonia nitrogen concentration, partitioning factor, short chain fatty acid and microbial biomass production. These trials were conducted along with respective blank in triplicate. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) total gas production was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.7 % and 0.8 %; for fungal xylanase at 0.5 %, 0.6 % and 0.8 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.6% and 0.8 % from dry jowar fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) total gas production was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.7 % and 0.9 %; for fungal xylanase at 0.8 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.7% and 0.8 % from dry pasture gi'ass. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) methane gas production was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.7 % and 0.9 %; for fungal xylanase at 0.8 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.6 % and 0.8 % from dry jo war fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) methane gas production was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.8 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.7 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.8 % from dry pasture grass. Result data of ammonia nitrogen did not show any statistically significant (P<0.05) effects for treated groups of dry jowar fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) ammonia nitrogen was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.3 % to 1 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.7 % from dry pasture grass. Treated groups of dry pasture grass with fungal xyanase did not show any statistically significant (P<0.05) results for samples of dry pasture grass. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) TDMD (%) and TDOMR (mg) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.8 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.6 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.7 % from dry jowar fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) TDMD (%) and TDOMR (mg) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.3% and 0.7 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.8 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.8 % from dry pasture grass. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) IVNDFD (%) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.8 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.6 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.6 % from dry jowar fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) IVADFD (%) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.7 % to 0.9 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.6 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.6 % from dry jowar fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) IVNDFD (%) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.3 % and 0.7 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.8 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.8 % from dry pasture grass. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) IVADFD (%) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.3 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.8 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.8 % from dry pasture grass. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) MBP (mg) was recorded for neutral cellulase at control group, for fungal xylanase at 0.6 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.9 % from dry jowar fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) MBP (mg) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.3 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.4 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.8 % from dry pasture gi'ass. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) PF was recorded for neutral cellulase at control gi'oup, for fungal xylanase at control and 0.01 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at control gi'oup from dry jowar fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) PF was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.01 %, for fungal xylanase at control group and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at control group from di'y pasture gi'ass. Statistically, significantly highei (P<0.05) SCFA (mmol) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.7 % and 0.8 %, for fungal xylanase at control and 0.8 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1.1) at 0.6 % and 0.8 % from dry jowar fodder. Statistically, significantly higher (P<0.05) SCFA (mmol) was recorded for neutral cellulase at 0.7 % and 0.9 %, for fungal xylanase at 0.8 % and for neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) at 0.7 % and 0.8 % from dry pasture grass. Based upon in vitro studies with rumen fermentation parameters, 0.6 % to 0.8 % levels of mixture of neutral cellulase + fungal xylanase (1:1) can be the best combination to increase degi'adability of dry jowar fodder and dry pasture grass. r)
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTEVG RUMEN BYPASS NUTRIENTS ON GROWTH OF JAFFARABADI HEIFERS 1731
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2013-07) A. P. GAJERA; K. S. DTJTTA
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CONCENTRATE WITH GROUNDNUT HAULMS ON GROWTH AND COST OF FEEDING IN GIR HEIFERS 1708
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2013-03) VIRAMGAMA N. K.; Dr, K. S. DUTTA
    Twelve Gir heifers were divided into three groups of four animals each and alloted to three dietary treatments as follows: All the animals were offered Pasture grass hay ad lib + 5 kg green Jowar. In treatment-1 (Ti), Gir heifers were fed Concentrate to meet the DC? requirement while those in treatment-2 (T2) were fed as per the Ti group but 10% concentrate was replaced by Groundnut haulms on isonitrogenous basis and animals of treatment-3 (T3), were fed as per the Ti group but 20% concentrate was replaced by Groundnut haulms on isonitrogenous basis. The average total live weight gain (kg) and average daily gain (g) in live weight were 28.8, 29.75, 30.2 kg and 479 10 484.60 and 503.19 g, respectively for T,, Tj, and T3 group. Non significant differences were observed for average total gain (kg) and average daily gain (g) in live body weight. The daily DM intake kg per day and kg per 100 kg body weight were 3.70, 3.77 & 3.88; and 2.70, 2.80 & 2.91 respectively in Ti, T2. and T3 group. Non significant differences (P>0.05) were observed for daily DM intake kg per day and kg per 100 kg body weight basis between the groups. The CP(g), DCP (g) and TDN (kg) intakes were 450.45, 460.85 8s 475.23; 307.58 315.16 8s 324.11 and 2.35, 2.40 8s 2.45 respectively in Ti Ta and T3 group in which treatment differences were nonsignificant. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, OF and NFE was 47.03%, 46.43%, 65.65%, 51.97%, 50.78% and 46.43%, respectively in Ti.The corresponding values in Ta were 44.66%. 47.54%, 66.84%, 52.74%, 52.54% and 47.57% while in T3 they were 47.74%, 48.87%, 67.82%, 52.00%, 53.87% and 48.87% Overall the treatment differences were non significant (P>0 05) The differences in digestibility coefficient for DM, CM, EE CP, CP and NFE were non significant (P>0.05) among the different treatment groups. Feed conversion ratio (DMI per kg live body weight gain) was non significantly different among the different groups. The cost of feeding per kg live weight gain was lowest in T3 group (Rs 47.17) and highest in Ti (Rs. 57.28). Overall findings of the present investigation indicate that partial replacement of concentrate mixture with groundnut haulms does not exhibit any adverse effect on dry matter intake, growth, biometry changes and digestibility of nutrient in the growing heifers. Additionally, it also reduces the cost of feeding to the extent at level of 8.91o/„. Therefore, it is beneficial to replace concentrate mixture with groundnut haulms at 20% level in the ration of Gir heifers.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MAIZE GRAIN PROCESSING WASTE IN GIR ANIMALS 1707
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2013-03) DHRANGU SAMAT P.; Dr. K. S. MURTHY
    An experiment was conducted to evaluate nutritive value of maize grain processing waste on six castrated Gir animals (Age 24-26 months and Body weight 184.33+8.14 kg) at Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. In first phase, experimental animals were offered maize grain processing waste and mature pasture grass hay and the digestibilities of the ration were recorded. In second phase, experimental animals were fed on mature pasture grass hay only and the digestibilities of nutrients were recorded for sole feeding of mature pasture grass hay. Nutritive value of maize grain processing waste was calculated by difference method. Digestion coefficients (%) of maize grain processing waste were: 78.40+2.64 DM; 81 15+0 73 OM; 76.78±1.35 CP; 56.03+0.67 OF; 80.58+1 70 EE; 86.80±0.96 NFE; 72.42±0.93 nDF and 61.52+1.42 ADF, respectively. Nutritive value of maize grain processing waste in terms of DCP and TDN contents were 5.51 and 72.71% respectively. Mature pasture grass hay had 0.07% DCP and 63.3% TDN respectively. On plane of nutrition of experimental animals on mixed feeding, they had lower DCP and higher TDN intakes in comparison to ICAR (1998) feeding recommendations. Lower intake of DCP on maize grain processing waste was due to lower voluntary dry matter intake (59.51% of the offered quantity). Overall results indicated that maize grain processing waste is an energy feed resource and can be used for feeding along with dry fodder for formulating maintenance rations.