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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ESTIMETING REFRANCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION WITH LIMITED METEOROGICAL DATA
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2015-05) VYAS KHYATIBEN N.; Dr. R. SUBBAIAH
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN REGARD TO SANCHI MILK IN GWALIOR CITY (MADHYA PRADESH)
    (jau,junagadh, 2011-09) Miss Neha Mishra; Prof. N.M. Thaker
    Milk is an essential commodity, which is inevitable in our day-to-day life. Hardly is any human being who does not taste milk throughout his life. The days were gone when milk can be purchased only from milk vendors. In these days when almost all items are sold in readymade forms in packets and milk is no more exception. It can be purchased at any time from a grocery shop. It is also good from health point of view as it is purified and the cholesterol content is removed from it. Several brands are available in the form of packet milk. MPCDF is the apex organization at the top of 3 tier structure of dairy cooperatives in Madhya Pradesh. Underneath there are 5 autonomous regional co-operative milk unions comprising of more than one district. Milk Unions have chilling centers, dairy plants, powder plants and cattle feed plants at different locations. In turn, several village level dairy co-operative societies which procure raw milk and send it to the nearest chilling centre/dairy plant function under each milk union. MPCDF involves in the marketing of different types of milk in different pack sizes (Full cream milk, Standard milk, toned milk, double toned milk, skimmed milk etc.) and Indigenous fresh milk products (ghee, flavored milk, butter milk, shreekhand, sweet curd, mattha, dahi, lassi, peda, chakka, mawa, Paneer etc.) under the brand name of "Sanchi". There are lots of dairies in this region some of them are Goyal dairy, Parivar dairy, Himalaya dairy and food product, New Punjab dairy, Shri girraj dairy etc. The main regions of Gwalior from where I have collected information are lashkar, morar, gola ka mandir, thatipur, sarrafa bazar and hazira because Sanchi dairy has their milk booths in these location and they want to know their marketing status in these areas. The study is an attempt to understand and predict consumer behavior. These in formations can play a great role in future market potentials of packet milk. Dairy industry in India is fast growing and expanding one. Studies on consumer behavior in regard to Sanchi milk will definitely help in its future growth and development in the right direction. In this project entitled “analysis of consumer behavior in regard to Sanchi milk in Gwalior city (M.P.)”, is an attempt is made to study the consumer behavior in Gwalior city. The main objectives of the study are: 1. To find out Sanchi milk consumers among packet milk consumers in Gwalior city. 2. To know the degree of satisfactions derived by the consumers in regard to price, quality, packaging and taste of the product. 3. To find out the impact of different factors affecting milk consumption. 4. To access the growth of milk procurement and selling in MP state cooperative dairy federation. This study will certainly help the company to analyze the market demand and potentiality of the Sanchi milk in Gwalior city. The consumer behavior survey will be useful to know consumer perception about Sanchi milk in Gwalior city. The consumer behavior survey will helpful to increase the consumer awareness about Sanchi milk and milk products in Gwalior city. They are committed to facilitate consumer awareness programs about safe and pasteurized milk, quality and hygiene aspects of Sanchi milk and milk products so that by consumer survey the company can evaluate the success rate of company in field of consumer awareness and also find out the defeat points that they earn in Gwalior city (M.P.). The company will know about their major competitors with the help of this survey and accordingly they can make better strategy to meet competition. There are some assumptions in this study: 1. Respondents will respond correctly. 2. Respondents will respond without bias. 3. Sample is true representative of population. There are some limitations of the study: 1. As the study is completed in a limit span of 60 days. The time factor put a limit on the scope at extensiveness of the study. 2. Sample size is 200 milk consumers therefore sample may not be true representative of population.3. Convenience sampling is used. The project work has completed in two months from 24-01-2011 to 24-03-2011. Purposive sampling technique is used for selection of survey area. It is generally used when you want to access a particular subset of people. Purposive sampling starts with a purpose in mind and the sample is thus selected to include people of interest and exclude those who do not suit the purpose. Simple random sampling is used for selection of consumers in these pre-defined areas. The sample size is 200. 200 milk consumers are contacted to collect relevant information from six different locations in Gwalior. The primary data will be collected through survey. The information will be collected through personal interview and questionnaire from consumers about milk consumption, preferred quality of milk and milk product and preferred brand of milk in that particular area. Secondary data will be collected through annual reports and official website of MPCDF. These are the statistical tools which are used in analysis of project work: Multiple regression analysis, growth analysis, simple tabular and graphical analysis, and percentage method. Milk is an essential commodity. It is useful to all groups of members. In Gwalior the loose milk is widely used by the respondents. From this study the researcher conclude that the Sanchi milk is more preferable than the other brand of milk in Gwalior. Some peoples are the hardcore loyal of Sanchi products so they want only Sanchi’s dairy products. Sanchi can increase its sales by adopting effective sales promotional schemes. Most of the respondents say that the quality of the product makes them to purchase the product consistently. So it would be beneficial to Sanchi to maintain their quality to expand their market coverage.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    THIN LAYER DRYING STUDY ON FOAMED AONLA PULP
    (jau,junagadh, 2011-09) Budhrani Bharti Pitamber; Prof. D. M. Vyas;
    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Geartn. Syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) fruit, commonly known as Aonla or Amla is one of the oldest minor fruits of India.The ascorbic acid content of fresh Amla fruit can range from 500 to 1500 mg per 100 gm of pulp, which is said to be highest among all fruits next only to Barbados cherry. The fresh Aonla fruits are not popular as a table fruit due to their high astringency taste. Its storability after harvesting is also limited due to its high perishable nature. But it has a great potential in processed forms. Generally, drying rates are comparatively higher in foamed pulps because of increased surface area at the liquid-gas interface thus allowing rapid drying through internal moisture movement within the pulp. The dehydrated powder/flakes are superior to drum dried and spray dried products because of its honeycomb structure and better reconstitution properties. The Aonla pulp was prepared and foam was produced using two foaming agents i.e. Glycerol monostearate (5, 10 and 15 %) and Egg albumin (5, 10 and 15 %), while methylcellulose (0.5 %) was used as a stabilizing agent throughout the experiment. For getting uniform foam and its proper expansion, the Aonla pulp was whipped with hand blender for 25 minutes for all the treatments and replications were taken. Thereafter, each treatment sample was analyzed for the determination of foaming behaviour for all the treatments undertaken in terms of foam expansion, foam stability and foam density Amongst both the foaming agent (Egg albumin and Glycerol monostearate) at all the concentration taken (5%, 10% and 15 %) and whipping time (5, 10, 15 20 and 25 minutes), Glycerol monostearate with 10 % concentration gives the maximum foam expansion as 142.00 %, after 15 minutes of whipping, maximum foam density (0.42 g/cm3) and maximum foam stability (70.59 %) amongst all the foam characteristics treatments. Hence the further research was carried using Glycerol monostearate with 10 % concentration. The foamed Aonla pulp was dried in Industrial tray dryer. The drying was carried out in three level of temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C) and three level of thickness (4mm, 6mm and 8 mm). The observations on reduction in weight were taken regularly with increase in time during the experiment. All the drying runs were evaluated in terms of drying characteristics. The Exponential model and Modified Page’s model which are commonly used grain models were tested for their validity to foamed Aonla pulp drying. For all the drying treatments taken the value of drying constants k and n were varying from 0.06 to 0.56 hr-1 and 1.73 to 2.62 respectively. Considering the average drying rate, drying time, drying constant, fitness of models and cost of drying, foamed Aonla pulp should be dried at 60 °C air temperatures with either 6 or 8 mm thickness of foam. From the observations on functional properties it was observed that lowest solution time (39.77), maximum solubility (60.00 %) and maximum water holding capacity (355.0 %) was found in the powder produced with 50 0C and 4 mm thickness, 60 °C with 6 mm thickness and 60 °C with 8 mm thickness. Both the maximum bulk density (0.41 g/ml) and minimum porosity (13.79 %) was found in the samples prepared by drying at 60 0C temperature with 8 mm and 6 mm foam bed thickness respectively indicating good quality powder. The foam dried Aonla powder obtained from the different treatments was biochemically analyzed in terms of moisture content, pH, ascorbic acid, titratable acidity and ash content. The foam dried Aonla powder obtained from the different treatments was stored at room temperature in plastic coated aluminum foil bag. During storage different observations in terms of moisture content, ascorbic acid, visual colour change and microbial count were recorded at 15 days interval for 2 months. The samples of powder dried at 50 °C inducing microbial growth even during the short term storage of two months and therefore the drying temperature should be more than 50 °C. From the analytical and statistical observations it was concluded that for effective drying and quality retention during the foam drying of Aonla pulp, foam of Aonla pulp should be produced by using Glycerol monostearate with 10 % concentration as foaming agent added with methylcellulose (0.5 % concentration) as stabilizing agent followed by 15 minutes whipping and then the produced foam of Aonla pulp should be dried at 60 °C air temperature with 6 or 8 mm bed thickness in tray dryer.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “INVESTIGATIONS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LIZARDFISH (Saurida tumbil) LANDED ALONG VERAVAL COAST”
    (jau,junagadh, 2010-06) Mahendra D. Fofandi; Dr. A. Y. Desai
    Lizardfish fishery in Veraval is mainly supported by Saurida tumbil. It is exploited by trawls and gillnets throughout the year. The length range of S. tumbil was found to be 15.20 cm to 39.90 cm. The length- weight relationship is described as slope ‘b’ 3.190 ± 0.060 for male and 3.267 ± 0.048 for female. It also confirms the growth is allometric in this species. The food was mostly comprised of fishes, shrimps and squids. Food and feeding analysis confirmed the carnivorous feeding behavior of this species. The overall sex ratio was 1.41. Absolute fecundity was 32,148 to 76,742 /kg body weight. Key words: Saurida tumbil, Lizardfish, Length-Weight relationship, Food and feeding habits, Sex ratio, Fecundity, Veraval coast.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “QUANTITATIVE ABUNDANCE OF Gracilaria corticata AND Hypnea musciformis FROM JALESHWAR COAST OF VERAVAL IN SOUTHERN SAURASTRA”
    (jau,junagadh, 2008-07) VEGDA JYOTI A.; Dr. A. Y. Desai
    The present investigations were carried out on Quantitative abundance of Gracilaria corticata and Hypnea musciformis from Jaleshwar coast of Veraval in Southern Saurashtra during the month of October 2007 to March-2008. Species of Gracilaria and Hypnea are used as a major and important source of raw materials for the extraction of agar agar and carrangenan in our country. Veraval on the Saurashtra Coast supports a rich population of these species. Analysis of the above 2 species was carried out at 3 tidal levels separately, i.e. upper, middle and lower littoral regions of the intertidal at Veraval coast. Belt transect method was used to identify the quantitative abundance of both the species of seaweed. Total biomass of all the three species was more on the lower littoral region than upper or middle littoral region. The highest standing crop biomass for G.corticata and Hypnea musciformis was observed in the month of January while G.folifera has highest biomass in the month of February. Standing crop biomass of H.musciformis was maximum as compared to the other two species of Gracilaria i.e. G.corticata and G.folifera. Out of two species of Gracilaria, G.folifera has a minimum biomass during the entire survey period. The highest values were observed for all the variables for quantitative assessment of abundance like density, frequency, cover and standing crop biomass for all the three species during the month of December to February. In the present study no correlation analysis was performed since the survey period was confined only to six months, from October to March, which yielded six monthly values of the seawater characteristics. Naturally, a correlation analysis with mere six values would not yield any correct statistical inference in this case. But, superimposing the growth characteristics on the monthly seawater characteristics, there is circumstantial evidence to show that the growth of seaweeds was maximum when the temperature of seawater was minimum and the dissolve oxygen content was maximum. Thus it is true to conclude that there is a positive relationship of the seaweed growth with low seawater temperature and high DO content in the seawater.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIATOMS IN COASTAL WATER OF VERAVAL IN SOUTHERN SAURASHTRA
    (jau,junagadh, 2008-07) Bharadiya Sangita A; A.Y.Desai
    Investigations were carried out on qualitative and quantitative studies of diatoms in the Veraval Coast with two different locations viz Jaleshwar coast and Observatory point (Lat. 20.540 N & Long. 70.220 E) during May 2007 to April 2008 Studies on the qualitative analysis show that, total 21 species of diatoms were present along the Jaleshwar coast and 19 species were identified from the Observatory point. Density of the centric diatoms was noticed higher than the pennate diatoms throughout the observation period. Eight diatom species such as coscinodiscus sp., Thalassiothrix longissima, Thalassionema nitzchiodes, Rhizosolenia sp., Biddulphia sp., Chaetoceros sp., Melosira sp. and Nitzchia sp. were encountered almost throughout the period of observation. Dense aggregation of Chaetoceros cells was recorded during the month of March at the station, 6800 cells/L and 3000 cells/L at Jaleshwar coast and Observatory point respectively. At both the coast lowest density occurred during the September and highest density occurred during March month. Seasonal abundance of diatoms show a peak during summer due to the huge accumulation of the Chaetoceros cell and lowest during the monsoon at both the coast. Salinity exhibited sharp decrease during September as a result of the influx of freshwater due to the change of season from summer to monsoon. The average value of the both the coast was 1478.12 cells/L, 405.37 cells/L and 317.25 cells/L during summer, monsoon and winter respectively. Value for the monsoon months on an average was higher than winter month but lower than summer month. A result of correlation analysis shows that the negative correlation exists between the diatom density and temperature, whereas the diatom density and salinity shows a poor positive correlation. Results of 3 monthly and 5 monthly moving averages conclude that the periodicity of the cycle is 12 month (peak only one time)
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    KNOWLEDGE OF Bt. COTTON GROWERS ABOUT DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF Bt. COTTON
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2005-10) Chavda D. A; Dr. D. M. Thakrar
    Bt.(Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton is the most extensively studied cotton variety today. Rigorous scientific studies have been conducted in India and abroard. The use of Bt. to control insect pest is not new, but now Bt. is that a modified version of the bacterial organs has been incorporated into the plant’s own Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, so that the plants cellular machinery produces the delta endotoxin as part of the plant normal development. Cotton is one of the important cash crops of India. India grows Bt. cotton for the first time in 2002. Mahyco Monsanto is pioneer in seed industry producing Bt. cotton. Gujarat is one of the main cotton producing state in which Amreli district has comparatively larger area under Bt. cotton. Bt. cotton is newly introduced cotton variety today. It is therefore, worthwhile to measure the farmers knowledge about distinctive features of Bt. Cotton. Keeping these points in view the present study entitled “Knowledge of Bt. cotton growers about distinctive features of Bt. cotton” was undertaken with the objectives given hereafter. (1) To study selected personal, socio-economic, psychological and communication characteristics of the Bt. cotton growers. (2) To know the Bt. cotton growers knowledge about distinctive features of Bt. cotton. (3) To know the relationship between some selected characteristics of Bt. cotton growers and their knowledge about distinctive feature of Bt. cotton. (4) To identify the constraints faced by Bt. cotton growers. (5) To seek suggestions from the Bt. cotton growers to overcome the constraints. The study was conducted in Amreli district of Gujarat state. Out of 11 talukas, 3 talukas of Amreli district were purposively selected, 2 Bt. cotton growing villages were randomly selected from each selected talukas and 25 Bt. cotton growers were selected randomly making a total sample of 150 respondents. Their responses were collected through structured questionnaire by personal contact. The knowledge level about distinctive features of Bt. cotton was measured through a teacher made test. To analyze the data statistical tools like mean, percentage, standard deviation, and coefficient of correlation were used. MAJOR FINDING 1. Majority of the Bt. cotton growers (65.34 %) belonged to middle age group. 2. In education level of 42.00 % of the respondents had primary education, 30.67 % had secondary education, 14.67 % had the higher secondary education, 8.66 % illiterate and 4.00 % had college level education. 3. Majority (66.66%) of the respondent had medium social participation, while 24% had low social participation and 9.34% had high social participation. 4. Majority of the Bt. cotton growers (61.33%) had large size of land holding above 4.00 hectare ,while 25.34% had medium land holding. 5. Majority of the Bt. cotton growers (81.34%) had medium irrigation potentiality. 6. A great majority of the Bt. cotton growers (92.00 %) had medium level of economic motivation. 7. A great majority of the Bt. cotton growers (91.33%) had medium credit orientation. 8. Majority of the Bt. cotton growers (65.33%) had medium market orientation. 9. Majority of the Bt. cotton growers (72.00 %) had medium cropping intensity. 10. Majority of the Bt. cotton growers (73.33%) had medium Bt. cotton production, while 58.00 % non-Bt. cotton growers had medium non-Bt. cotton production. 11. Majority of the Bt. cotton growers (68.66%) had medium level of scientific orientation. 12. A great majority of the Bt. cotton growers (84.66%) had medium innovativeness. 13. A majority of the Bt. cotton growers (69.33%) had medium risk orientation. 14. A majority of the Bt. cotton growers (76.66%) had medium overall modernity. 15. A great majority of the Bt. cotton growers (86.00 %) had medium mass media exposure. 16. A great majority of the Bt. cotton growers (84.00 %) had medium level of extension participation. 17. Majority of the Bt. cotton growers (81.33%) had medium level of knowledge about distinctive features of Bt. cotton. 18. Selected characteristics like education, social participation, size of holding, irrigation potentiality, cropping intensity, production of Bt. cotton and non-Bt. cotton, scientific orientation, overall modernity, mass media exposure and extension participation were significantly correlated with knowledge of Bt. cotton growers about distinctive features of Bt. cotton. 19. Major conditions faced by the Bt. cotton growers were high price of seed, heavy infestation of sucking pest, problem of wilt, improper vegetative growth and difficulty in weed control. 20. Suggestions given by the Bt. cotton growers to overcome the constraints were sucking pest resistant variety should be developed, seed should available in time and on low cost, wilt resistant variety should be developed, Bt gene should be incorporated in desi variety and Govt. should provide training to farmers for Bt. cotton cultivation.