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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ATTITUDE AND LIVELIHOOD SECURITY OF SMALL AND MARGINAL FARMERS TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL DIVERSIFICATION 3693
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2023-06) RATHOD RAJSINH BHUPATBHAI; Dr. B. N. Kalsariya; 1010120021
    In India, agriculture plays a crucial role in agrarian economies, but small and marginal farmers are facing unsustainable land-based livelihoods. Their land no longer meets their families' and cattle' food and fodder needs. Diversification has been seen as a strategy to minimize risks caused by price fluctuations, uncertain weather, and pests. Traditionally, diversification involved growing multiple crops for subsistence farming and managing household food security. Keeping this in view, present study was thought to be carried out with selected characteristics of small and marginal farmers, livelihood security, extent of agricultural diversification, to develop and measure the attitude scale, relation between selected characteristics and attitude as well as agricultural diversification, constraints and suggestions offered by the small and marginal farmers. The study was conducted in three districts viz., Junagadh, Rajkot and Gir Somnath of Saurashtra region. Two talukas from each selected district and three villages from each taluka were selected randomly. From each village, seven small and seven marginal farmers were selected. Thus, 126 small and 126 marginal farmers making a total 252 respondents were selected for the study.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A CRITICAL STUDY ON GENERATION OF FARMERS’ CONTEMPORARY INNOVATIONS AND RE-INVENTIONS IN SAURASHTRA REGION 3670
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2023-05) VAGHASIYA KRUPALI PARSOTAMBHAI; Dr. N. B. Jadav; 1010120029
    An innovation in agriculture has been the basis for increasing agricultural productivity and promoting agricultural development. Over the years, farmers also selected several varieties that had higher productivity and better quality. Farmers have also developed new and low-cost technologies to preserve process and package various farm products both for increased shelf life and better market opportunities. Although farmers’ innovations and re-inventions have always been happening but quite slowly and has seldom been recognized by communities itself and the scientists also. It so, because of the key actors’ innovation process is not working closely with each other. The significance of farmers' innovations and re-inventions however ranges from being useful only to the individual farmer, sometimes even limited to specific circumstances to a wider range of application that can be used by many farmers. With this consideration, the problem entitled “A critical study on generation of farmers’ innovations and re-inventions in Saurashtra region” was undertaken.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IMPACT OF RELIANCE FOUNDATION INFORMATION SERVICES ON BENEFICIARY FARMERS OF SAURASHTRA REGION 3738
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) DEVRAJ JEVLYA; Dr. B. N. Kalsariya; 2010121073
    In India, agriculture plays a crucial role in agrarian economies, but small and marginal farmers are facing unsustainable land-based livelihoods. Today, the transfer of technology in extension systemsis done by multiple service providers including both public and private institutions responding to the multifaceted demands, problems and needs of the farmers. Agricultural extension is becoming pluralistic with different actors concurrently using different and diverse extension approaches and methods. But one can never forget the role played by the public extension system in attaining self-reliance in food production in a green revolution. It would not have been possible without the interventions of the public extension system. Similarly, even for doubling of farmer's income also the public extension system has a lead role to play. Keeping this in view, the present study was thought to be carried out with a profile of beneficiary farmers towards RFIS, to know the impact and effectiveness of farmers towards RFIS, the relationship between profile and the effectiveness as well as the impact of RFIS on beneficiary farmers, constraints faced by the farmers in utilizing the RFIS and elicit their suggestions for its effective implementation and documentation of the beneficiaries of RFIS. The study was conducted in three districts viz., Junagadh, Gir Somnath and Jamnagar of Saurashtra region. Two talukas from each selected district and three villages from each taluka were selected randomly. From each village, ten respondents were selected. Thus, a total of 180 respondents were selected for the study. The result of the research study indicated that with respect to personal characteristics, majority of farmers belonged to middle age group; had middle/secondary school education and had the medium size of family. In socio economical characteristics, had farming + animal husbandry as main occupation, semi medium size of land holding and medium annual income respectively. As regards to communicational characteristics, majority of the farmers had medium level of mass media utilization and medium level of social participation. In order of psychological characteristics, majority of farmers had medium level of innovativeness, access to weather forecasts, decision-making ability, credibility and risk orientation. Overall effectiveness of RFIS in addressing the information needs of farmers were more than three-fifth of the respondents had medium level of effectiveness. In case of overall impact of RFIS were two third of the respondents had medium level of impact. It can be concluded that today’s farmers are getting more information from this kind of ICT’s or limited foundation; e.g., Reliance Foundation Information Service. The study also found that there is medium effectiveness and cause positive impact on farmers by RFIS foundation. The characteristics of the farmers like; education, occupation, size of land holding, annual income, innovativeness and access to weather forecast had positive and highly significant relationship with the effectiveness of RFIS. Whereas, mass media utilization, social participation, credibility and risk orientation had positive and significant relationship with the effectiveness of RFIS. The size of family and decision making ability had non-significant relationship with the effectiveness of RFIS. Age had negative and highly significant relationship with the effectiveness of RFIS. The education, size of land holding, annual income, mass media utilization and risk orientation had positive and highly significant relationship with the impact of RFIS. While, occupation, social participation, innovativeness and access to weather forecast had positive and significant relationships with the impact of RFIS. The size of family, decision making ability and credibility had non-significant relationship with the impact of RFIS. Here also, age had negative and highly significant relationship with the impact of RFIS. Major constraints identified by farmers were; lack of information on addresses for inputs available during the lean season for sowing, lack of farmer specific information, not having proper network connectivity on the farm, lack of information on preventive measures of pest and disease and visits of the RFIS workers are not in time for additional information. The important suggestions given by the majority of the farmers were; there should be a provision of information on address for inputs availability, dissemination of farmer specific information and proper visit, organization of RFIS before time for resource mobilization and decrease the use of technical words and increase local terminology for easy understanding and adoption of technology
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IMPACT OF FRONT LINE DEMONSTRATIONS OF CHICKPEA PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY UNDER NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION (NFSM) SCHEME IN SAURASHTRA REGION 3775
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-09) POKAR MANOJKUMAR VINUBHAI; Dr. V. J. Savaliya; 1010119034
    Chickpea is one of the most important pulse crop of India as well as Gujarat state. In Gujarat, Saurashtra is one of the most remarkable region for chickpea cultivation and production. The area under the cultivation of chickpea is increasing every year, as it is one of the most important pulse crop of India. However, its average yield on farmers’ fields is low than its potential yield on research stations. The Krishi Vigyan Kendras organize demonstrations in the specific area through the NFSM scheme with the aim of increasing the production and productivity of the pulses crop. There is still a gap in farmers' knowledge and adoption of chickpea production technologies. The main reason for low production is lack of knowledge and adoption about improved or recommended chickpea production technology. Therefore, to analyze the above situations, it was thought worthwhile, to carryout study entitled “Impact of Front Line Demonstrations of Chickpea Production Technology under National Food Security Mission (NFSM) Scheme in Saurashtra Region”. This study was carried out with specific objectives; to study the personal, socio-economical, communicational, psychological and situational characteristics of FLD beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries as well as to study the knowledge level and extent of adoption regarding improved chickpea production technology, to study the association between respondents’ knowledge as well as adoption about chickpea production technology and their selected characteristics and to find out the constraints and seek suggestions from the beneficiaries to overcome the constraints faced by them. A study was conducted in three districts of Saurashtra zone viz., Jamnagar, Amreli and Surendranagar purposively where, Front Line Demonstrations of chickpea crop had been organized under NFSM scheme by Krishi Vigyan Kendras. Two talukas from selected districts and two villages from selected talukas were selected purposively. Total twelve villages selected from selected talukas. From each selected village, ten chickpea FLD beneficiaries and ten non-beneficiaries were randomly selected as respondents. Thus, a sample of total 120 FLD beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiary chickpea growers from 12 villages was considered for the study. The data so collected through personal interview of respondents were coded, classified and tabulated analyzed according to objectives to draw meaningful conclusions. ii With respect to characteristics, it was observed that more than half (55.00 per cent) of FLD beneficiaries belonged to middle age group, slightly more than two-fifth (41.67 per cent) had education up to primary school level, less than three-fifth (58.33 per cent) had medium farming experience, less than half (46.67 per cent) had medium size of family, more than one-third (36.67 per cent) had semi medium size of land holding, more than three-fifth (63.34 per cent) had medium social participation, nearly half (49.16 per cent) had high level of market orientation, more than three-fifth (63.33 per cent) had medium yield index, nearly three-fourth (72.50 per cent) had medium level of extension participation, more than three-fifth (63.34 per cent) had medium utilization of sources of information, more than two-fifth (44.16 per cent) had very high level of risk orientation, more than half (54.16 per cent) had high level of innovativeness, two-fifth (40.00 per cent) had very high level of scientific orientation, near about two-third (64.16 per cent) had favourable attitude, more than three-fifth (62.50 per cent) had medium irrigation potentiality and more than two-third (67.50 per cent) had medium cropping intensity. While in case of non-beneficiaries, it was concluded that 61.67 per cent of them were from middle age group, 58.33 per cent had education up to primary school level and 68.34 per cent were having medium farming experience. It was observed that 46.67 per cent of respondents had medium size of family and 58.33 per cent had small size of land holding. Whereas, with respect to social participation (47.50 per cent), market orientation (38.33 per cent), yield index (64.17 per cent), extension participation (79.17 per cent), innovativeness (45.00 per cent), scientific orientation (38.33 per cent), attitude (70.00 per cent), irrigation potentiality (53.33 per cent) and cropping intensity (63.33 per cent) were in the group of medium level. Nearly half (48.33 per cent) of non-beneficiaries had utilization of sources of information had less and 32.50 per cent of them had very high level of risk orientation. More than three-fifth of the FLD beneficiaries (63.33 per cent) had medium knowledge level, followed by 22.50 per cent had high and 14.17 per cent had low level of knowledge. Majority (60.00 per cent) of the beneficiaries had medium extent of adoption, followed by 21.67 per cent had high and 18.33 per cent had low extent of adoption of improved chickpea production technologies. While in case of non beneficiaries, more than two-third (68.33 per cent) of them had medium level of knowledge about improved chickpea production technology, followed by 19.17 per cent had low and 12.50 per cent had high level of knowledge. Slightly less than two third (65.00 per cent) of the non-beneficiaries were found in medium extent of adoption category, followed by 24.17 per cent had low and 10.83 per cent had high extent of adoption of improved chickpea production technologies. The impact of FLDs in terms of difference in knowledge level indicate that highly significant difference in knowledge level with mean score (9.600) and extent of adoption with mean score (7.503) between FLD beneficiary and non-beneficiary chickpea growers. This showed that the Front Line Demonstrations were significantly found useful to increase knowledge and adoption level of FLD beneficiary farmers as compared to non-beneficiary farmers regarding improved chickpea production technology. The FLD beneficiaries had more knowledge regarding practices like, sowing time and method (90.83 per cent) and secured rank first, followed by land preparation (89.17 per cent) and spacing (85.83 per cent) practices with second and third rank, respectively. While in case of non-beneficiaries, the knowledge was found more regarding practices like, land preparation (73.33 per cent) and secured rank first, followed by spacing (68.33 per cent) and interculturing (66.67 per cent) practices with second and third rank, respectively. iii The FLD beneficiaries had adopted the practices like, sowing time and method (84.17 per cent) and secured rank first, followed by land preparation (83.33 per cent) and spacing (81.66 per cent) practices with second and third rank, respectively. While in case of non-beneficiaries, the adoption was found more regarding practices like, land preparation (70.83 per cent) and secured rank first, followed by spacing (65.83 per cent) and sowing time and method (62.50 per cent) practices with second and third rank, respectively. The characteristics of the FLD beneficiaries like education, yield index, extension participation, risk orientation, scientific orientation, irrigation potentiality and cropping intensity had positive and highly significant association with their knowledge level. The characteristics viz., farming experience, size of land holding, social participation, market orientation, sources of information, innovativeness and attitude had positive and significant association with their knowledge level. While, age and size of family had non-significant association with their knowledge level regarding improved chickpea production technology. In case of non-beneficiaries, the characteristics like education, farming experience, size of land holding, market orientation, extension participation, risk orientation, scientific orientation, attitude, irrigation potentiality and cropping intensity had positive and significant association with their knowledge level. The characteristics of the FLD beneficiaries like education, farming experience, size of land holding, social participation, market orientation, yield index, extension participation, sources of information, risk orientation, innovativeness scientific orientation, attitude, irrigation potentiality and cropping intensity had positive and significant association with their adoption level. The characteristics viz., age and size of family had non-significant association with their adoption of improved chickpea production technology. While in case of non-beneficiaries, the characteristics like education, farming experience, extension participation, risk orientation, scientific orientation, irrigation potentiality and cropping intensity had positive and significant association with their adoption level. Fourteen of the independent variables, which had positive and direct effect on knowledge of FLD beneficiaries, were screened for the path analysis. It revealed that extension participation had highest direct effect on knowledge level, followed by scientific orientation and sources of information. Fourteen of the independent variables, which had positive and direct effect of adoption of FLD beneficiaries, were screened for the path analysis. It revealed that farming experience had highest direct effect on adoption level, followed by sources of information and attitude. While in case of non-beneficiaries, out of ten independent variables, which had positive and direct effect of knowledge level were screened for the path analysis. It revealed that farming experience had highest direct effect on knowledge level, followed by scientific orientation and irrigation potentiality. Seven of the independent variables of non-beneficiaries, which had positive and direct effect of adoption level, were screened for the path analysis. It revealed that scientific orientation had highest direct effect on adoption level, followed by cropping intensity and irrigation potentiality. With respect to total indirect effect of the selected characteristics on knowledge level of FLD beneficiaries, the ranking of these effects revealed that market orientation had highest total indirect effect, followed by cropping intensity and education, while total indirect effect of the selected characteristics on adoption level of FLD beneficiaries, the ranking of these effects revealed that market orientation had highest total indirect effect, followed by yield index and cropping intensity. In case of non-beneficiaries, the total indirect effect of the selected characteristics on knowledge level, the ranking of these effects revealed that education had highest total indirect iv effect, followed by market orientation and extension participation, while total indirect effect of the selected characteristics on adoption level of non-beneficiaries, the ranking of these effects revealed that risk orientation had highest total indirect effect, followed by education and farming experience. The major constraints faced by FLD beneficiaries were: non-remunerative market price on farm produce with first rank, followed by high cost of farm inputs, viz., seeds, fertilizers, pesticides etc. and low production due to pest and disease infestations. The major suggestions offered by FLD beneficiaries were: fair price should be given to the produce with first rank, followed by farm inputs should be available at low price with subsidized rate and the plant protection and disease management information should be provided in time
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    COMMUNICATION BEHAVIOUR OF SCIENTISTS OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRAS OF WESTERN INDIA 3623
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-10) NAGIRI KISHOR KUMAR; Dr. V. J. Savaliya; 1010119020
    The agricultural information is vast, interdisciplinary and specific to different agro-climatic zones and needs a proper information dissemination system for its effective use. Hence, agriculture information resources should be significantly organized and processed to disseminate right information to the right users at the right time. The information need of the farmers is diverse and they also searching different sources for getting information on agriculture and scientists of KVKs were found as one of the important sources of knowledge of the farmers. Communication is recognized as an important input for development to disseminate and create dialogue among different stakeholders about the technologies and issues of agriculture, environment and sustainable development. A Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) is an agricultural extension center which the name means “Farm Science Centre”, usually serves as the ultimate link between the research stations and farmers which aims to pass on information in a practical in a localized setting. With this consideration, the problem entitled “Communication behaviour of scientists of Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Western India” was undertaken. A study was conducted in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Goa states. All the KVKs of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Goa were purposively selected for the study. Considering the total number of KVKs in Western India, 160 respondents were selected for the study. With respect to personal characteristics, more than two-third (71.25%) of the KVK scientists belonged to middle age group, more than half (51.25 per cent) had education up to masters, nearly half (46.25%) had moderate job experience, more than two-fifth (44.38%) had low training exposure, more than two-fifth (43.13%) had medium level of perceived workload, more than two-fifth (44.37%) were found in the high job satisfaction group, more than two-fifth (44.38%) fall under high organizational climate category, nearly two-fifth (39.37%) had high job performance, nearly two-third (62.50%) of the respondents had medium scientific orientation, nearly two-third (64.38%) medium level of innovativeness, that nearly two-third (63.75%) of the respondents had medium level of achievement motivation and nearly two-third (70.63%) of the respondents had medium level of favorable attitude towards ICTs. ii Nearly two-thirds of the respondents (63.13%) were found under medium category of information input behaviour, more than three-fifth (61.25%) were found under medium category of information processing behaviour and more than half of the respondents (55.00%) were found under medium category of information output behaviour. Nearly three-fifth of the respondents (59.38%) were found under medium category of overall communication behaviour. The characteristics of the respondents like training exposure and attitude towards ICT had positive and highly significant relationship with their communication behaviour. The characteristics of the respondents viz., age, education, job experience, job satisfaction, organizational climate, job performance, scientific orientation, innovativeness and achievement motivation had positive and significant relationship with their communication behaviour. Perceived work load of the respondents had negative and significant relationship with their communication behaviour. Eleven of the independent variables screened for the path analysis which had positive and direct effect on communication behaviour of KVK scientists revealed that trainings received (X4) had highest direct effect on communication behaviour of KVK scientists, followed by attitude towards ICT (X11) and education (X2). With respect to total indirect effect of the selected characteristics on communication behaviour of KVK scientists, it was found that trainings received (X4) ranked highest, followed by attitude towards ICT (X12) and scientific orientation (X9). Further, it’s evident from results that first largest indirect effect channelled was through trainings received (X4) in case of variables namely age (X1), job experience (X3), job satisfaction (X6), job performance (X8), innovativeness (X10), achievement motivation (X11) and attitude towards ICT (X12). The KVK scientists indicated greater need for training in respect of communication methods: Conducting demonstrations and about the training in presentation skills: Effective preparation of presentation. Regarding training related to visual aids: Designing power point and concerned to the training in preparation of communication literature: Technical writing. In respect to training related to ICT’s: Website design and regarding training related to mobilization farmers: Motivating farmers was very important. The most important constraints faced by scientists were: Inadequate staff leading to heavy workload, lack of proficiency in handling ICT tools, insufficient funds and less contingencies to the KVKs, inadequate transports facilities to visit the farmers’ fields and poor connectivity of internet to disseminate crucial information. The most important suggestions from the respondents were: Sufficient staff required at the KVK to avoid workload, relevant trainings should be organized for scientists for development of skills in usage of modern ICT tools, sufficient funds should be provided and released timely for the KVKs, more vehicle facility especially for carrying extension activities and also for mobilizing farmers from villages and more farm visits should be included during workshops
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PERCEIVED IMPACTS AND STRATEGIES TO COPE-UP WITH CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE FARMING IN SAURASHTRA REGION OF GUJARAT STATE 3612
    (jau junagadh, 2022-09) KHUNT KRIMPAL RATILAL; Dr. N. B. Jadav; 1010119014
    Agriculture is the backbone of economy in most of the developing countries. In addition to food and raw material, agriculture also provides employment opportunities to large population. Agriculture and global climate change are inextricably linked processes. Climate change has been considered to be most vital issue affecting the survival of human race of the 21st century. It has the potential to have an immediate and indirect impact on agriculture. Climate change is putting additional strain on India's ecological and socioeconomic systems, which are already under tremendous strain as a result of rapid urbanisation, industrialization, and economic development. Climate change directly affects agriculture production as this sector is inherently sensitive to climatic conditions and is one of the most vulnerable sectors at the risk and impact of global climate change. Impacts of climate change are diversified and need to be understood, so as to workout pragmatic strategies to mitigate ill-effects of climate change. Considering this factual information a study on “Perceived impacts and strategies to cope-up with climate change on agriculture farming in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state” was undertaken. A study was conducted in Junagadh, Jamnagar, Rajkot, Amreli and Porbandar districts of Gujarat state. Two talukas were selected from each district. From each selected taluka, two villages were selected randomly. Total twenty villages from ten talukas were selected randomly and fourteen farmers from each village were selected as respondents. Thus, a sample of total 280 farmers was considered for the study. A multidimensional scale was developed for assessing perception of farmers about climate change for the study. In respect to socio-personal characteristics, More than half (52.14 per cent) of farmers belonged to middle age group, one-third 32.86 per cent farmers were educated up to middle school level, slightly more than half (63.22 per cent) of farmers had medium farming experience, 27.86 per cent of the farmers had annual income above ₹ 1.5 to 2.0 lacs, more than one-third (36.43 per cent) of farmers were having medium size of land holding, nearly three-fifth (57.14 per cent) of farmers had medium social participation. Most of the respondents had irrigation facility as a well and canal (33.21 per cent) and 62.14 per cent of farmers had medium access to weather forecast. Whereas, regarding extension participation (59.64 per cent), farm mass media (67.50 per cent), risk orientation (36.07 per cent), economic motivation (40.71 per cent), scientific orientation (50.36 per cent), Decision making ability (62.50 per cent) majority of them were from the middle categories. Majority (62.86 per cent) of farmers had medium level of perception about climate change, while 20.36 per cent of farmers fall under the category of high level of perception about climate change. The remaining 16.78 per cent farmers had low level of perception about climate change. The data on perceived impact of climate change that, two-third (59.28 per cent) of the respondents were from medium impact of climate change followed by 21.43 per cent and 19.29 per cent of respondents were from high and low impact of climate change, respectively. Out of sixteen variables, education, farming experience, access to weather forecast, extension participation, farm mass media, risk orientation, innovativeness, economic motivation, scientific orientation and decision making ability had positive and highly significant relationship with level of perception about climate change and perceived impacts of climate change. Whereas, regression analysis of perception of farmers about climate change revealed that education, farming experience, access to weather forecast, innovativeness, scientific orientation and decision making ability were contributing significantly to perception about climate change. While, regression analysis of perceived impact of climate change indicated that education, farming experience, access to weather forecast, extension participation, risk orientation, economic motivation and scientific orientation were contributing significantly to perceived impact of climate change. The important constraints given by farmers concerning to the lack of information about accurate weather forecast, lack of knowledge about need based improved agriculture technologies and lack of information about long term climate change; In case of suggestion, weather forecast should be more accurate and timely, efforts should be made to create awareness among the people about the effect of climate change and its consequences and proper information should be provided about climate change.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    KNOWLEDGE OF FARMERS TOWARDS INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM IN SAURASHTRA REGION 3377
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) DERVALIYA SANJANABEN BHARATBHAI; M. G. Dhandhlya; 2010119022
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NATIONAL INNOVATIONS ON CLIMATE RESILIENT AGRICULTURE (NICRA) PROJECT ON FARMERS OF NORTH SAURASHTRA AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE 3372
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) BODSA DIVYESHBHAI MAHENDRABHAI; V. N. Chavda; 2010119013
    Impact, NICRA, Climate resilient technologies National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) is a network project of the ICAR launched on 2nd February, 2011 by the Honourable Union Minister for Agriculture and Food Processing Industries Shri Sharad Pawarji. Project aims to enhance resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change and climate vulnerability through four module technological demonstration. So, in this study, an attempt was made for measure the impact of NICRA project on rural livelihood securities. This study was carried out with specific objectives: to study the profile of the respondents, the impact of NICRA project on rural livelihood securities of beneficiary and non beneficiary farmers, relationship between profile of beneficiaries and impact of NICRA project, document the success stories of NICRA project, constraints faced by the respondents for adoption of climate resilient technologies and suggestions to overcome the constraints. The study was conducted in Rajkot and Amreli districts of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat state. One taluka was selected from each of the selected two districts, from each of talukas one village was selected purposively because of functioning of the NICRA project only in these villages. Besides these villages, another one village was selected randomly near NICRA villages for comparison. Thus, total two talukas and four villages were selected. Thirty respondents were selected randomly from each of the NICRA villages and another thirty respondents were selected randomly from each of the non-NICRA villages. Thus, total of 120 respondents were selected randomly from four villages for the study. NICRA farmers were belonged to middle age group (56.67 per cent), were educated up to middle school (33.33 per cent), belonged to nuclear family (83.33 per cent), had medium level of farming experience and medium size of land holding (30.00 per cent). Whereas, had medium level of social participation (43.33 per cent), medium level of mass media exposure (48.33 per cent), medium level of economic motivation (50.00 per cent), medium level of risk orientation (51.67 per cent) and medium level of innovativeness (58.34 per cent). Whereas, non-NICRA farmers belonged to middle age group (53.34 per cent), educated up to primary level (38.33 per cent), ), belonged to nuclear family (73.33 per cent), had medium level of farming experience (38.33 per cent) and small size of land holdings (46.67 per cent). Whereas, had low level of social participation (46.67 per cent), medium level of mass media exposure (43.34 per cent), medium level of economic motivation (43.33 per cent), low level of risk orientation (43.33 per cent) and low level of innovativeness (45.00 per cent). Nearly half of the NICRA farmers (48.34 per cent) had medium level of impact of NICRA project, followed by 33.33 per cent had high and 18.33 per cent had low level of impact of NICRA project, respectively. In case of the non-NICRA farmers, more than two-fifth of the respondents (41.67 per cent) had medium level of impact of NICRA project, followed by 33.33 per cent had low and 25.00 per cent had high level of impact of NICRA project, respectively. The characteristics of the NICRA farmers like education, social participation, mass media exposure, economic motivation, risk orientation and innovativeness had positive and highly significant relationship with impact of NICRA project. The characteristics like farming experience and size of land holding had positive significant relationship with impact of NICRA project. The characteristics like age and family type had positive and non-significant relationship with impact of NICRA project. While in case of the non-NICRA farmers, farming experience, size of land holding and mass media exposure had positive and significant relationship with impact of NICRA project. The characteristics like age, education, family type, social participation, economic motivation, risk orientation and innovativeness had positive and non-significant relationship with impact of NICRA project. The major constraints faced by the respondents for adoption of climate resilient technologies; uneven rainfall distribution in the area, lack of financial support, lack of knowledge about climate resilient practices, lack of technical guidance regarding NICRA project, lack of resources owned by farmers etc. The suggestion given by the respondents to overcome the constraints for adoption of climate resilient technologies were; provision of technical guidance regarding NICRA project, training programmes should be conducted on different climate resilient technologies under NICRA project, technology demonstrations should also be given on need based problems, easy provision of loans by government agencies/institutions at low interest rates, required implements and machinery should be provided on time etc.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ASSESSMENT OF LIVELIHOOD SECURITY OF FARMERS IN COASTAL AREA OF SAURASHTRA REGION 3369
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) GAJERA DIVYESHKUMAR SHAILESHBHAI; J. V. Chovatia; GAJERA DIVYESHKUMAR SHAILESHBHAI
    India is one of the developing countries, where majority of the people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Livelihood is the means that the people use to support themselves, to survive and to prosper. Livelihood is an outcome of how and why people organize to transform the environment to meet their needs through technology, labour, power, knowledge, and social relations. Coastal salinity is and would continue to be the great menace to sustainable crop production in the Gujarat state. Soil and water salinity problems are the major factors that are responsible for attaining better livelihood security. What's more, their living options and conditions are getting from bad to worse. Hence, the present investigation entitled “Assessment of livelihood security of farmers in coastal area of saurashtra region” was envisaged with following objectives: profile of respondents, livelihood security of respondents, relationship between attributes of respondents and their livelihood security, SWOT analysis of the respondents, constraints faced by the respondents for attaining livelihood security and suggestion of the respondents. In order to realize the objectives of the study, 120 respondents were selected from 12 different villages on the basis of 5 km from the coastal belt of three districts Porbandar, Junagadh and Gir-somnath by applying multistage purposively random sampling technique. With respect to characteristics, 47.50 per cent of respondents were from middle age group, 37.50 per cent respondents had education up to middle school level, 37.50 per cent respondents were having joint family and had 5 to 6 members in their family, 50.00 per cent of respondents was small size of land holding and 58.33 per cent of coastal area farmers had farming + allied as an occupation, 35.00 per cent of respondents had medium annual income, 48.33 per cent of the respondents belongs to OBC caste. Whereas, with respect to social participation (63.33 per cent), economic motivation (63.33 per cent), management orientation (56.67 per cent), credit orientation (65.00 per cent) and resource use management behavior (77.50 per cent), coastal area farmers were in the group of medium level. ii The majority (61.67 per cent) of the farmers had medium level of overall livelihood security index, followed by 20.00 per cent of them had low level of livelihood security index and 18.33 per cent of them were with high level of livelihood security index. There was positive and highly significant relationship between education, size of land holding, occupation, annual income, economic motivation, resource use management behavior and their livelihood security and also had positively and significant relationship between management orientation and credit orientation with their livelihood security. The characteristics of the respondents like age, family size, caste and social participation were non-significant relationship associated with the livelihood security. Major constraints faced by coastal area farmers for attaining better livelihood security in sequential order were: lower productivity due to high salinity in their soil and saline water, unavailability of drinking water facility, unavailability of social structure for education and health facilities, lack of guaranteed employment and irregularity in rainfall. Major suggestions from the respondents to attain better livelihood security in sequential order were: Government should provide assistance and support for salinity management of their soil, they should have access to assured supply of basic living amenities like drinking water, basic education facilities should be made available at village level, appropriate insurance cover should be met in case of crop failures and government should help in creation and development of assets like land, house, tractor etc