ThesisItem Open AccessGENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS FOR FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) 3500(JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) SAVDHARIYA DIVYESHBHAI NATHABHAI; Savdhariya Divyesh N. Dr. Lata J. Raval; 2010120078Highest percentage of transgressive segregants were observed in JOL – 2K – ThesisItem Open AccessGENETIC VARIABILITY, CORRELATION, PATH ANALYSIS AND GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN GREEN GRAM [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] 3499(JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) PATEL HARSH JITENDRAKUMAR; Patel Harsh J. Dr. B. A. Monpara; 2010120067The current empirical study on "Genetic variability, correlation, path analysis and genetic divergence in green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek)" was conceded to assess variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, path analysis and genetic divergence in 72 genotypes of green gram. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replications at the Pluses Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, during the period of the kharif season 2021-22. The observations were recorded on 11 traits viz., days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod (cm), 100-seeds weight (g) and seed yield per plant (g). The analysis of variance revealed that mean squares due to genotypes were highly significant for days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and seed yield per plant indicating the presence of sufficient amount of variability in the experimental material used. The present experimental material showed a wide range of phenotypic variation for seed yield per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pods per cluster and number of primary branches per plant as revealed by high values of range coefficient. The magnitude of PCV was slightly greater than GCV which revealed that very little influence of environmental variation was observed on all the characters and stated that a sufficient amount of variability was noticed. Seed yield per plant show high phenotypic coefficient of variation and moderate genotypic coefficient of variation. The estimates of high heritability coupled with high genetic advance expressed as per cent of mean was observed for number of primary branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, 100-seeds weight and seed yield per plant. It indicates that most likely the heritability is due to additive gene action and selection may be effective for seed yield improvement. Correlation analysis among the yield and its contributing characters revealed that the genotypic correlation coefficients in most of the cases were higher than their phenotypic correlation coefficients indicating the association was largely due to genetic reasons. Seed yield per plant had a highly significant and positive correlation with the number of primary branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 100-seeds weight at both genotypic and phenotypic levels indicating that these attributes were more influencing the seed yield and therefore these were important characters for bringing genetic improvement of seed yield. Moreover, seed yield per plant had significant and positive correlation with length of pod at both genotypic and phenotypic level. The genotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that number of pods per plant, 100-seeds weight and number of seeds per pod expressed positive and higher direct effect on seed yield per plant. The residual effect was found to be 0.0755 at genotypic path coefficient analysis. The phenotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that number of pods per plant, 100-seeds weight and number of seeds per pod exhibited high and positive direct effects on seed yield per plant. Whereas, negative direct effect on seed yield per plant were contributed through number of clusters per plant and plant height at phenotypic level. The residual effect was found to be 0.1321 at phenotypic path coefficient analysis. Genetic diversity studies, using Mahalanobis's D2 statistics, indicated existence of significant diversity among 72 green gram genotypes that were grouped into 12 clusters. Among 12 clusters formed, cluster II having largest number of genotypes (20) followed by cluster I (18) and cluster VI (12). On the other hand, cluster III, cluster IV, cluster VII, cluster VIII, cluster IX, cluster XI and cluster XII are solitary clusters.The intra-cluster distance was highest in cluster X (7.81) and lowest in cluster I (5.55). The maximum inter-cluster distance was found between cluster IV and XII (D = 19.16) followed by cluster XI and XII (D = 18.01), cluster III and XII (D = 16.59), cluster II and XII (D = 16.22), cluster IV and V (D = 15.89) and cluster VI and XII (D = 15.81) which indicated that, crossing of genotypes among these clusters will give higher frequency of transgressive segregants or desirable combinations for high yield. It was also revealed that the seed yield per plant (26.49 %) contributed maximum towards the total divergence followed by 100-seeds weight (25.82 %), number of pods per plant (11.15 %), length of pod (9.04 %), plant height (8.33 %) and number of clusters per plant (7.71 %). From the present investigation, it can be concluded that additive gene action was operating for number of primary branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, 100-seeds weight and seed yield per plant as it showed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as a per cent of mean. Study of correlation coefficient and path analysis clearly indicated that the number of pods per plant and 100-seeds weight was most important trait. The traits viz., seed yield per plant, 100-seeds weight, number of pods per plant, length of pod, plant height and number of clusters per plant had highest contribution towards total genetic divergence. Hence, emphasis must be given on the above-mentioned traits while imposing selection for genetic improvement in green gram. ThesisItem Open AccessFORMS OF SULPHUR IN THE SOILS OF NORTH SAURASHTRA AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE OF GUJARAT 3498(JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) SURAJ KUMAR; Suraj Kumar Dr. L. C. Vekaria; (Registration No-2010120084)The present investigation was for evaluating status of sulphur in the soils of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat state and interrelations among the forms of sulphur, for these four hundred eighty samples (10 soil samples from each taluka) were collected from the cultivated fields. The soil samples were analyzed for different forms of sulphur viz., Total S, organic S, non-sulphate S, available-S, sulphate S and water-soluble S. For establishing the relationship among forms of sulphur, co efficient of correlation, regression co-efficient and path co-efficient were worked out. Mean value of 25.72 mg kg-1 available sulphur in North Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone of Gujarat was seen and it was ranged from 2.82 mg kg-1 to 84.23 mg kg 1 . The data revealed that lowest mean value of available S (21.01 mg kg-1 ) was obtained from the samples of Amreli district while highest mean value of available S (31 mg kg 1 ) was found in the samples of Bhavnagar district. The overall value of range of Total S in North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat was 104.2-3381 mg kg-1 with mean value of 867.70 mg kg-1 . The data explained that minimum value of total S (484.5 mg kg-1 ) was obtained from the samples of Rajkot district however the data revealed that maximum total S (1089 mg kg-1 ) was found in the samples of Bhavnagar district on overall mean basis. On the basis of overall data organic S in North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat ranged from 77.6 mg kg-1 to 3284 mg kg-1 with mean value of 824.2 mg kg 1 . The data brought to light that lowest mean value of organic S (443.9 mg kg-1 ) was recorded from the soil samples of Rajkot district and highest mean value of organic S (1040 mg kg-1 ) was recorded from the soil samples of Bhavnagar district. Non-sulphate S overall ranged from 2.6 to 224.6 mg kg-1 in North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat was observed with mean value of 26.31 mg kg-1 . The data disclosed that minimum mean value of non-sulphate S (24.09 mg kg-1 ) was obtained from the samples of Morbi district on contrary to this, highest mean value of non-sulphate S (29.66 mg kg-1 ) was found in the soil samples of Jamnagar. The overall range of sulphate S in North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat was recorded as 0.53-66.39 mg kg-1 with mean value of 17.59 mg kg-1 . The outcome data explained that lowest mean value of sulphate S (13.89 mg kg-1 ) was obtained from the samples of Amreli district on other hand highest mean value of sulphate S (21.66 mg kg-1 ) was recorded in the soil samples of Devbhoomi Dwarka. The water- soluble S ranged from 0.95 mg kg-1 to 92.27 mg kg-1 in North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat was observed with mean value of 20.52 mg kg-1 . The data exhibited that lowest mean value of water soluble S (19.16 mg kg-1 ) was obtained from the samples of Jamnagar district while highest mean value of water soluble S (23.88 mg kg-1 ) was found in samples of Bhavnagar district. Altogether, the soils of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat had nutrient index values of 2.46 for available sulphur. About 9.37 per cent samples were tested as low class (< 10 mg kg-1 ), 34.58 per cent samples were under medium class (10-20 mg kg-1 ) for available S and 56.04 per cent sample falls in high available S class (> 20 mg kg-1 ). In the soil of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat sulphate sulphur exhibited a significant positive correlation with available sulphur among almost all the district. Water soluble sulphur showed highly significant and positive relationship with available sulphur in almost all the representive samples soil of North-Saurashtra. Organic sulphur was significantly and positively correlated with total sulphur almost in almost all soils. The regression of available-S with another forms of sulphur were explained the variation from 54 % upto 82 %. However, accessible sulphur was impacted to its largest extent by the water soluble form followed by the sulphate form in Surendranagar, Jamnagar, Devbhumi- Dwarka and Morbi. Whereas in the soil of Rajkot, Amreli and Bhavnagar accessible sulphur was impacted to its largest extent by the sulphate form followed by the water soluble form. Through path diagram, it was concluded that water soluble sulphur (Surendranagar, Jamnagar, Devbhoomi-Dwarka and Morbi) and sulphate sulphur (Rajkot, Amreli and Bhavnagar) ascribed maximum direct positive effect on heat soluble sulphur or available sulphur. Other forms like organic and non-sulphate also exhibited direct positive effect (Rajkot, Jamnagar etc) and direct negative influence (Amreli, Surendranagar etc) on accessible sulphur. Beneficial effect of total sulphur was seen in the soil of Amreli Surendranagar and Devbhoomi-Dwarka while detrimental effect was seen in Rajkot, Jamnagar, Morbi and Bhavnagar. As per data obtained, it can be concluded based on nutrient index value the soils of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat were medium to high fertility class for available S while the Jamnagar, Amreli and Morbi districts were comparatively deficient in available sulphur on contrary to this Bhavnagar, Rajkot, Dwarka and Surendranagar were surplus in available sulphur content. It can be also concluded that decreasing order for reading of different fractions of sulphur in TS > OS> NSS > AS >WSS > SS. OS contributed maximum to TS ThesisItem Open AccessPOPULATION DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT OF LEAF WEBBER, Antigastra catalaunalis DUPONCHEL INFESTING SESAME 3497(JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) JYOTI SHARMA; Jyoti Sharma Dr. V. C. Gadhiya; (Registration No-2010120040)leaf damage. The number of capsules per plant (r = -0.876**) showed a highly significant negative correlation with the mean per cent of flower and capsule damage. Consideration of leaf, flower and capsule damage, none of the genotypes/varieties were found highly resistant (HS) and highly susceptible (HS). However, variety G. Til-10 and genotype AT-457 were found resistant (R) while varieties G. Til-4 and G. Til-6 were found susceptible (S) against leaf webber, A. catalaunalis. Genotype AT-457 (1.97) and variety G. Til-10 (2.02) recorded the lowest damage score than the rest of the genotypes/varieties. The next promising varieties, AT-470 (2.49), AT-482 (2.69), AT-483 (2.71), G. Til-2 (2.80) and G. Til-3 (3.20) were fallen into the moderately resistant (MR) category. However, AT 467 (4.53) was categorized as moderately susceptible, while G. Til-4 (5.47) and G. Til-6 (5.73) had the highest damage score. Among all genotypes/varieties, the highest yield (520.13 kg/ha) was recorded from G. Til-10 than the rest of the genotypes/varieties followed by AT-457 (514.15 kg/ha) and AT-470 (477.5 kg/ha). Application of insecticides were carried out at the time of pest initiation on the crop. The data obtained from the field experiment on the management of leaf webber infesting sesame with various insecticides revealed that the maximum pest (72.22%), damaged leaf (44.19%) and capsule (9.06%) reduction over control along with the highest seed yield (692 kg/ha) and net monetary return ₹ 40710/ha was recorded in chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 0.005% treated plot. The higher larval (69.19 to 64.65%), damaged leaf (41.19 to 37.57%) and capsule (60.9 to 55.38%) per cent reduction along with higher seed yield (100.59 to 98.22%) and higher net monetary return ₹ 39100 to 38180/ha was found in the treatment of chlorfenapyr 10 SC @ 0.015% and spinosad 45 SC @ 0.0003% were statistically at par with chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 0.005%. The treatments emamectin benzoate 5 + lufenuron 40 WG @ 0.005% and novaluron 5.25 + indoxacarb 4.5 SC @ 0.016% also gave 50.50 to 43.43 per cent larval reduction, higher seed yield (48.94 to 48.31%) with higher net monetary ₹ 37260 and 36340/ha. Further, the interaction effect of various treatments and pooled period of spray (T × P), as well as interaction between different periods of spray (P), was noted as significant, which signifies that one spray is needed for managing the leaf webber population, which remained effective up to ten days after treatment. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF ROOTSTOCK HEIGHT AND SCION STICK LENGTH ON SUCCESS, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF WEDGE GRAFTING IN GUAVA (Psidium guajava L.) 3496(JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) RAJATIYA PURIBEN HAMIRBHAI; Rajatiya Puri H. Dr. D. R. Kanzaria; 2020620012The present experiment entitled “Effect of rootstock height and scion stick length on success, growth and survival of wedge grafting in guava (Psidium guajava L.)’’ at Fruit Research Station, Lalbaug, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during March-2021 to July-2021. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with factorial concept with twenty treatment combinations and three repetitions. The experiment involved wedge grafting was performed in guava. The first factor involves rootstock height (15, 20, 25 and 30 cm). The second factor involves scion stick length (05, 7.5. 10, 12.5 and 15 cm) to study the effect of effect of rootstock height and scion stick length on success, growth and survival in guava grafts. The result on the effect of rootstock height minimum number of days taken to sprouting (12.62) in H2 (20 cm height of rootstock). Maximum number of successful grafts (5.00, 5.80, 6.73 and 6.68), highest success rate (50.00, 58.00, 67.33 and 66.82 %), minimum number of failure grafts (1.20, 2.21, 2.81 and 3.32) and lowest mortality rate (12.03, 22.12, 28.09 and 33.18 %) at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days interval, respectively, maximum number of leaves (22.68), number of nodes (11.05), internodes (10.05), leaf area (93.49 cm2 ), incremental scion length (31.79 cm), incremental rootstock length (19.97 cm), graft height (89.72 cm), girth above graft union (6.19 mm), girth below graft union (8.20 mm), number of shoots per graft (4.00) and survival percentage (66.82 %) at 120 DAG were noted in H4 (30 cm rootstock height). The result on the effect of scion stick length minimum number of days taken to sprouting (13.76), maximum number of successful grafts (4.33, 5.58, 6.25 and 6.17), success rate (43.33, 55.83, 62.50 and 61.70 %), minimum number of failure grafts (1.37, 2.46, 3.08 and 3.83) and mortality rate (13.70, 24.68, 30.87 and 38.31 %) at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days interval, respectively, maximum number of leaves (22.59) and maximum survival percentage (61.70 %) at 120 DAG were noted in L3 (10 cm scion stick length). Whereas, maximum number of nodes (9.78), internodes (8.78), leaf area (89.40 cm2 ), incremental scion length (22.52 cm), graft height (65.43 cm), girth above graft union (7.32 mm), girth below graft union (8.11 mm), number of shoots per graft (3.75) at 120 DAG were noted in L5 (15 cm scion stick length). Interaction effect of rootstock height and scion stick length minimum number of days taken to sprouting (11.11 days) was found in treatment H2L3 (20 cm rootstock height and 10 cm scion length) and maximum incremental scion length (33.80 cm) was found in treatment H4L5 (30 cm rootstock height and 15 cm scion length). Hence, for getting more success and the highest survival percentage, the wedge grafts should be prepared during the last week of March to first week of April using 30 cm rootstock (one year old) height and 10 cm scion stick (mature) length in guava. ThesisItem Open Access“EVALUATION OF ORGANIC CARBON STATUS IN THE SOILS OF SAURASHTRA REGION” 3495(JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) Ganvit Khushbuben N.; Key words: Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Organic Matter, Soil Nitrogen, EC2.5, pH2.5; Ganvit Khushbuben N.A field experiment entitled “Evaluation of Organic Carbon Status in the soils of Saurashtra Region” was carried out during summer season of 2021. Samples were collected from each taluka of different districts of Saurashtra region and analyzed at Department of Soil science and agricultural chemistry, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. On the basis of analyzed data of soil samples, collected from different district of Saurashtra region of Gujarat, it can be concluded that soil of Saurashtra region was medium in Organic Carbon status with mean value of 0.57 per cent, whereas Porbandar district found highest organic Carbon percentage with 0.82 per cent value and Surendranagar district found lowest organic carbon percentage with 0.44 per cent. The soils of Saurashtra region were calcareous in nature and alkaline in reaction. The pH2.5 mean value of Saurashtra region was 8.0, whereas Rajkot, Porbandar and Junagadh district show the lowest pH2.5 value and Amreli district show the highest pH2.5 value from soil of Saurashtra region. The EC2.5 of soil samples of Saurashtra region was found with men value of 0.53 dS/m, whereas the lowest EC2.5 was found in Morbi District and the highest EC2.5 was found in Porbandar district. According to Nutrient index value, Porbandar, Gir-Somnath and Devbhoomi Dwarka district covered very high area of having Organic carbon per cent. Bhavnagar, Amreli, Rajkot and Surendranagar found very low organic carbon per cent area. ABSTRACT Junagadh and Jamnagar covered medium area of having Organic carbon per cent. Morbi district covered high area of having Organic carbon per cent. The overall highly significant correlation of SOC with EC2.5 (r = -0.290**) and SOC with pH2.5 (r = 0.268**) were observed in Rajkot District. In Junagadh and Morbi district, there was significant correlation found between SOC and EC2.5 (r=-0.208) and (r = 0.335). Overall organic matter and Soil Nitrogen range were 0.19-2.69 per cent and 0.018-0.414 in soil of Saurashtra region. Maximum mean value of organic matter and soil nitrogen were found in Porbandar district (1.41%, 0.071%) and minimum mean value of organic matter and nitrogen were found in Surendranagar district (0.76%, 0.038%) ThesisItem Open AccessASSESSMENT OF FARMERS’ SENSITIVITY TOWARDS JUNAGADH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY 3494(2022-08) DOBARIYA KHUSHBUBEN GOPALBHAI; DOBARIYA KHUSHBUBEN GOPALBHAI Dr. J. V. CHOVATIA; 2010120023Junagadh Agricultural University came in to existence on May 01, 2004 by enactment of Gujarat Agricultural Universities Act, 2004 (Gujarat Act, No.5 of 2004) with transfer of the activities of the Junagadh zone of the erstwhile Gujarat Agricultural University. After recognition, the Junagadh Agricultural University has played a spectacular role in the area of education, research and extension, as a result, JAU got “5-star rating” in Gujarat State Institutional Rating Framework (GSIRF) rating by government of Gujarat in the year 2021. The core of JAU's operating philosophy however, continues to create the partnership between the rural people and committed academic as the basic for sustainable rural development. In pursuing its various JAU's overall mission is to promote sustainable growth and economic independence in rural society. JAU aims to do this through education, research and extension education. Thus, JAU works towards the empowerment of the farmers. The JAU believes in harnessing the power of science and innovation for increasing the prosperity of rural society in the last 19 years. JAU has been given many efforts for farmer’s welfare. Hence, the present investigation entitled “Assessment of farmers’ sensitivity towards Junagadh Agricultural University” was envisaged with following objectives: profile of farmers, sensitivity of the farmers towards Junagadh Agricultural University, relationship between profile of the farmers and their sensitivity towards Junagadh Agricultural University, constraints faced by the farmers in utilization of resources of Junagadh Agricultural University, suggestions from the farmers to create better sensitivity towards Junagadh Agricultural University. The present study was carried out in the jurisdiction of JAU. Four districts were selected purposively in the jurisdiction of JAU namely Junagadh, Porbandar, Rajkot and Jamnagar. Because, these districts are located near JAU, more number of farmers were aware about JAU and utilized JAU resources also KVK is working in Jamnagar, Porbandar and Rajkot districts. From the selected four districts on basis of proportionate sampling eight talukas were selected for the study. From each taluka randomly two villages and from every selected village randomly ten farmers were selected for the study. In all, 160 farmers were selected by the multistage random sampling procedure. With respect to characteristics, 49.38 per cent of farmers were from middle age group, 33.13 per cent farmers had education up to middle school level, 41.25 per cent farmers had a very high level of experience, 33.12 per cent of farmers had medium annual income, 32.50 per cent of farmers was semi medium size of land holding and 45.62 per cent of farmers had farming + AH as an occupation. Whereas, with respect to 37.50 per cent of the farmers had a membership in two organizations in social participation, 65.00 per cent of the farmers had a medium level of farm media exposure, 66.25 per cent of the farmers had a medium level of extension contact, 41.87 per cent of the farmers had undergone ‘two-day training’, 63.12 per cent of farmers had a medium level of information-seeking behavior and 43.75 per cent of the farmers had a medium level of scientific orientation. Majority 63.75 per cent of the farmers belonged to favorable attitude towards JAU, 47.50 per cent of the farmers had a high level of awareness about JAU and 49.38 per cent of the farmers had a high level of utilization of resources of JAU. The majority 67.50 per cent of the farmers had a good level of sensitivity, followed by 16.87 per cent excellent, 13.13 per cent average and 2.50 per cent below average level of sensitivity towards JAU. While it was observed that none of them had a poor level of sensitivity towards JAU. There was positive and highly significant relationship between social participation, extension contact and training received with their sensitivity towards JAU and also had positively and significant relationship between education, experience in farming, farm media exposure, information seeking behavior and scientific orientation with their sensitivity towards JAU. The characteristics of the farmers like annual income, land holding and occupation were non-significant relationship associated with their sensitivity towards JAU and age had a negative and non-significant relationship associated with their sensitivity towards JAU. Major constraints faced by the farmers in the utilization of resources of JAU, in sequential order were; less use or no use of university website by farmers due to digital illiteracy, inputs are not available to all farmers in a sufficient quantity, less opportunity to participate in farmers training organized by JAU due to geographical limitations. Major suggestions were identified to overcome the constraints to create better sensitivity towards JAU, in sequential order were; timely availability and adequate quantity of inputs, promotions of farmers centric extension activities (farmer to farmer approach), regular visit of extension personnel for university recommendations and information regarding govt. scheme. ThesisItem Open AccessSTUDIES ON BLENDING OF DRAGON FRUIT AND LIME JUICE FOR RTS BEVERAGE 3493(JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) DEEPA K; Deepa K Dr. K. M. Karetha; 2020620002The present investigation entitled “Studies on blending of dragon fruit and lime juice for RTS beverage” was undertaken at PHT Laboratory, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2021-22. The experiment comprised of twenty-two treatment combinations in Completely Randomized Design with factorial concept including three replications. The experiment entailed two factors viz. blending proportions and storage conditions, where blending proportions of dragon fruit juice and lime fruit juice were 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 and stored at ambient and refrigerated (4 oC) conditions. The stored RTS was evaluated for bio-chemical and organoleptic qualities at an interval of 15 days. It was observed that, there was a gradual increase in TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and acidity while, contradictory decrease in non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid and pH. The score for color, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of blended RTS also decreased during storage. The result indicated that blending ratio of 70:30 (Dragon fruit juice: lime juice) showed noticeably higher values in bio-chemical parameters namely total soluble solids, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars along with organoleptic test which includes aroma, taste and overall acceptability. Treatment with blending proportion of 100:0 of dragon fruit juice and lime juice exhibited better results in case of pH, acidity, 0:100 of dragon fruit juice and lime juice for ascorbic acid whereas, 10:90 blending ratio for color in RTS beverage. In organoleptic testing and ascorbic acid, refrigerated conditions (4 oC) outperformed ambient conditions in storage circumstances. Ambient conditions showed higher values for TSS, pH, acidity, reducing, non-reducing and total sugars. Interaction effect between blending proportions and storage conditions was observed significant for microbial population. Lowest fungal growth of 0.01 Cfu ml-1 and lowest bacterial growth of 0.53 × 108 Cfu ml-1 was seen in 70:30 blending of dragon fruit juice and lime juice stored at Refrigerated condition (4 oC). From this present study, it could be concluded that dragon fruit and lime juice blended at 70:30 ratio and stored at Refrigerated condition (4 oC) for 60 days period was found more acceptable in case of aroma, taste, overall acceptability with lower attack of micro-organisms. There was lesser microbial growth in RTS blended at 70:30 of Dragon fruit juice and lime juice at Refrigerated condition (4 oC) by the end of storage period. ThesisItem Open AccessPROTEIN AND FATTY ACID PROFILING OF SPREADING, SEMI SPREADING AND BUNCH TYPES VARIETIES OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) 3492(JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-08) GORE VISHNU BAPURAO; Mr. GORE VISHNU BAPURAO Dr. P. J. RATHOD; 2010120033The present research on “Protein and fatty acid profiling of spreading, semi spreading and bunch type varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)” was conducted at Department of Biochemistry, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh with an objective (1) To determine protein and oil content from different spreading, semi spreading and bunch type varieties of groundnut. (2) To explore variability among the seed kernel protein through SDS-PAGE in different type of groundnut varieties. (3) To examines comparative analysis of fatty acid profile in groundnut varieties classified as spreading, semi spreading and bunch type. Groundnut is an edible oil seeds crop in the saurashtra region, thirty different types groundnut cultivars were collected from Main Oilseeds Research Station, JAU, Junagadh. The seed kernel was analyzed for biochemical parameters mainly proximate composition including moisture, oil, total carbohydrate and total soluble protein, the seeds were also analyzed for protein fractions viz., albumin (water soluble), globulin (salt soluble), glutelin (alkali soluble) and prolamin (alcohol soluble) protein and also oils extracted from soxhlet method were utilized for fatty acid profile The data obtained from the experimental results suggested that higher variability among all constituents of seeds of thirty varieties. It showed statistically significant variation in constituents of each the types and among the variety. The moisture content of thirty groundnuts was found to be significant and among the types of varieties. The maximum moisture content was found in SB-11 (5.86%) of bunch type whereas minimum moisture was recorded in GJG-22 (3.03%) of semi spreading type varieties. The same trends for significant differences among the oil quality of variety was observed. The oil content showed that highest oil content in the semi-spreading type GIRNAR-5 (54.92%) followed by the bunch type variety GJG 32 (52.88%). while lowest oil percentage was observed in KAUSHAL variety (40.90%). The higher value for carbohydrate was observed in variety TG-26 (24.53%) of bunch type and minimum carbohydrate was found to be in bunch type of variety GJG-32 (12.20%). In case of total soluble protein data, the ranged was shown to be varied among the types, the varieties belonging various types was found to be in ranged from 18.38 to 22.92% in semi spreading, 20.05 to 24.70% in spreading and 17.80 to 24.44% in bunch type. Results of the protein profiling through soluble fractionation was shown to be varied among the types in spite of same composition and types of proteins. The data shown significant changed in percent variation in albumin, globulin, glutelin and prolamin content of each variety. The globulin protein fraction content was higher among the four-protein fraction. Highest globulin % was found to be in variety KAUSHAL (78.5%) of semi spreading whereas lowest in variety TG-26 (69.91%) of bunch type. Out of thirty groundnut varieties albumin content was higher in semi spreading type variety GIRNAR-4 (21.4%) and minimum albumin was recorded in of variety KAUSHAL (13.65 %). Glutelin and prolamin found to be very low percentage wise in all varieties but it was found to be in the range of 1.38% to 3.42 % in glutelin as well as prolamins was found to be in the range of 1.47% to 4.39%. Correlation matrix can be stated that the globulin was negatively correlated with albumin at 1% level significance in varieties of groundnut seed. The data from each fraction of SDS Gels were shown to be differences in Rf and appearance of band intensity, number of bands were calculated using GEL analyzer (19.1 windows) software for protein PAGE analysis. The number of bands for total soluble protein were found to be ranged from 12 to 21, 15 to 21 and 8 to 22 in the spreading type, semi spreading and bunch type varieties of groundnut respectively. Among the 30 varieties, the maximum protein bands (21) were found to be in GG-11 variety whereas minimum protein bands (8) were observed in GG-7 variety of bunch type. Cluster analysis based on banding pattern divided thirty varieties of groundnut into two main clusters. The number of bands found in thirty groundnut varieties in SDS PAGE analysis ranged from 11 to 20, 12 to 21, 4 to 10 and 2 to 7 for albumin, globulin, glutelin and prolamin protein fractions, respectively. The results of fatty acids profiling were found to be very interesting for each fatty acid. The unsaturated fatty acids were found to be present in large amount, whereas saturated were present in small amount in oils of all the varieties studied. total 10, 10 and 9 fatty acids were detected in spreading, semi spreading and bunch type groundnut varieties, respectively. The UnFA/SFA ratio was found to be in range of 3.97 to 5.11, 4 to 6.58 and 3.43 to 4.98 in spreading, semi spreading and bunch type respectively. The MUFA/PUFA ratio was observed maximum in variety GIRNAR-4 and GIRNAR-5 of semi spreading and other varieties in the same group was found to be in the ranged of 2.13 to 3.65 while MUFA/PUFA ratio ranged from 2.13 to 3.65 was detected in spreading type and 1.06 to 2.39 MUFA/PUFA ratio was observed in bunch type. Minimum MUFA/PUFA ratio was recorded in GG-7 (1.06) of bunch type. The oleic to linoleic ratio (O/L) was observed highest in variety GIRNAR-4 and GIRNAR 5 of semi spreading and other varieties in the same group was found to be in the ranged of 1.43 to 3.54 while 2.09 to 3.64 O/L ratio detected in spreading type and 1.05-2.33 O/L ratio was observed in bunch type bunch type variety GG-2 (1.05) found lowest in oleic to linoleic ratio (O/L). Correlation matrix of spreading, semi spreading and bunch type groundnut varieties between the oil % and fatty acid profile showed positively correlation of palmitic and linoleic acid. The experimental results can be useful for plant breeders, food processors for deciding varying amount of carbohydrates, protein and oil as well as for the consumer too. This information can benefit for the scientist working in groundnut for analysis of biochemical constituents, proteomics and lipidomic. However, heterogeneity in protein and fatty acid profiling in distinct types can be useful in identifying quality traits in groundnut genotypes from this study.