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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Assessment of morpho-biochemical diversity of Lemongrass in Khunti district of Jharkhand
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2024) APURWA KUMARI; Jai Kumar
    The microclimatic conditions of an area affect largely on the quality of any species which is a base for attaining Geographical Indication (GI) tag. It is seen in many species of plants that the climatic and edaphic conditions of a particular area contribute to the uniqueness; that is seen in many species. However, in the area of medicinal plants, very scanty research has been done to screen out unique cultivar having specific properties to meet the demand of GI tag. It has been observed in Jharkhand in case of Lemongrass, the biochemical content (Citral) is found significantly superior irrespective of the species rather due to local climatic and edaphic conditions. So, in this research work, impact of climatic and edaphic conditions on the biochemical constituents, growth and yield parameters of Lemongrass under in-vivo conditions was evaluated to screen out the superior variety and to establish that the biochemical constituent in Khunti zone (Marker area) was mostly influenced by the climatic and edaphic conditions. So to assess the different germplasm of Lemongrass in search of superior chemotypes, which are influenced by local climatic and edaphic conditions irrespective of varieties under in-vivo conditions, a systematic research namely “Assessment of morpho-biochemical diversity of Lemongrass in Khunti district of Jharkhand” was undertaken for geo-referencing of traits and to analyse its biochemical constituents with a reference line of Khunti district and its adjoining areas with the following objectives (i) To assess morpho-biochemical diversity of Lemongrass in all three agro climatic zones of Jharkhand under in-vivo conditions (ii) To conduct geo-referencing of morpho-biochemical traits of Lemongrass in all three agro climatic zones of Jharkhand under in-vivo conditions (iii) To analyse the traits association studies with local climatic and edaphic conditions to screen out striking factors contributing towards uniqueness of Lemongrass. The study involved 50 different Lemongrass germplasm as treatments, with three replications and 30 plant samples in each treatment. Forty germplasm were collected from agro-climatic zone V and five each from zones IV and VI, respectively. At every location, details like coordinates, altitude, plant growth, yield measurements, and soil samples were carefully recorded. Biochemical analysis of Lemongrass oil was done using GCMS at CIMAP in Lucknow. Weather data was collected throughout the plants' growth stages until they were ready for harvesting. To understand the diversity, geo-referencing and grid mapping were done using DIVA-GIS (Version 7.5). Statistical evaluations were carried out using OPSTAT, INDOSTAT and independent t-test. Lemongrass germplasm had two types of plant growth habits, erect and semi-erect and most of them belongs to semi-erect types (64.00 %). Based on leaf blade color, 28 germplasm (56.00 %) exhibited a green hue. 70.00 % germplasm exhibited stem colour as green with reddish-purple tinges. Highly significant difference was observed in mean plant height and mean culm diameter between the germplasm collected from agroclimatic zone IV & V and V & VI. Maximum plant height was recorded for T4 (162.33 cm) followed by T7 (157.67 cm) and T6 (156.00 cm). Maximum culm diameter was recorded for T3 (0.82 cm) followed by T12 (0.80 cm) and T13 (0.81 cm). Highly significant difference was observed in mean leaf blade length between the germplasm collected at agroclimatic zone IV & V and V & VI. Maximum leaf blade length was recorded for T7 (76.33 cm) followed by T3 (75.67 cm) and T4 (74.00 cm). Non-significant difference was observed in mean leaf blade width and mean number of effective tillers/culm between the germplasm collected from all three agroclimatic zones. Non-significant difference was also observed in mean herbage yield/plant between the germplasm collected from all three agro climatic zones. Maximum herbage weight per plant was recorded for T16 (1.07 kg) followed by T11 (1.06 kg) and T2 (1.02 kg). Highly significant difference in the essential oil content (%) was observed between different the germplasm collected from IV and V as well as IV and VI. Maximum essential oil content was recorded at T17 and T40 (0.65 %) which was at par with 27 treatments. Highly significant difference was observed in mean refractive index of oil between the germplasm collected from agro climatic zone IV & VI. Total citral % of Lemongrass germplasm collected from different agro climatic zones varied from 77.27 to 63.42%. Highly significant difference was observed in citral content between the germplasm collected at agro climatic zone IV & V and IV & VI. Number of compounds isolated from Lemongrass oil varied highly significantly and its maximum value was recorded for T49 (43) and minimum of T50 (16). Citral content of Lemongrass showed highly positive significant correlation with essential oil content (0.503), plant height (0.559), culm diameter (0.529), leaf blade length (0.638), however among climatic factors it had significant positive correlation with mean temperature (0.366) but highly significant negative correlation with rainfall (-0.717). In case of soil physical parameters, citral content of Lemongrass showed significant negative correlation with bulk density (-0.367) of soil, while in case of soil chemical parameters, citral content of Lemongrass oil showed non-significant positive correlation with organic carbon (0.162), available nitrogen (0.162) and available phosphorus (0.271) of soil. Regression analysis of climatic factors indicated that mean temperature (1.481) of the location had a significant impact while among the soil physical parameters indicated that sand % (1.245) and silt % (1.429) of the soil had a significant impact on the citral content of Lemongrass oil. Again, among the soil chemical parameters, only available phosphorus of soil (1.447) had significant positive impact on the citral content. Path value analysis of climatic factors revealed that mean temperature (0.272) and mean relative humidity (0.009) had direct positive impact on citral content and among soil physical parameters maximum positive direct impact of citral content was shown by sand % (7.57). In soil chemical parameters, only available phosphorus (0.483) had direct positive direct impact of citral content. Among the sources of diversity, herbage yield/culm (22.53%), essential oil content (20.65%) and leaf blade width (20.49%) contributed maximum diversity of collected Lemongrass germplasm. As regards the first objective namely “Morpho-biochemical diversity of Lemongrass in all three agro climatic zones of Jharkhand under in-vivo conditions”, significant differences in various traits among collected Lemongrass germplasm was observed. Highly significant difference was observed between ACZ V (Khunti) & IV (Hazaribag) as regards to plant height, culm diameter, leaf blade length, geranial, neral, citral, essential oil content, whereas, highly significant differences was observed between ACZ IV (Hazaribag) & VI (Chandil) with regards to essential oil content, refractive index, geranial and citral of Lemongrass germplasm. Among the sources of diversity, herbage yield/plant (22.53%) and essential oil content (20.65%) created maximum contribution towards the diversity of Lemongrass germplasm. 3D cluster diagram analysis indicated that the germplasm (T46 to T50) from ACZ VI (Chandil) was quite diverse from ACZ IV and V. Similarly, the germplasm of ACZ V (T2, T22, T31, T35 and T38) also shown significant diverse status from other germplasm. Superior germplasm of Lemongrass identified with high citral content were from ACZ V, T14 (77.27%) and T13 (76.60%). As regards to the second objective namely “Geo-referencing of morpho-biochemical traits of lemongrass in all three agro climatic zones of Jharkhand under in-vivo conditions” it may be inferred that plant height of Lemongrass germplasm from ACZ V was significantly superior than ACZ IV and VI, however number of effective tillers/culm was same for ACZ V and VI, which was more than ACZ IV. Maximum total citral content was found for ACZ V, followed by ACZ VI and minimum for ACZ IV. As regards to the third objective namely “Traits association studies with local climatic and edaphic conditions” it may be inferred that mean temperature (0.366) showed significant positive impact on citral content but total rainfall (-0.717) had highly significant negative impact on it, which is also confirmed by regression analysis and path value analysis. Bulk density (-0.367) of soil had significant negative impact on citral content, while available phosphorus of soil (1.447) had significant positive impact on the citral content but total rainfall (-0.275) had direct negative impact on it. The study suggests that agro-climatic zone V of Jharkhand demonstrated superior growth, yield, and biochemical production of Lemongrass. Hence it can be firmly concluded that the Lemongrass germplasm of ACZ V (Khunti zone) has potentially superior biochemical constituents, which may be screened out to be suitable candidate for GI tagging. To reinforce these findings, further investigations, including expanding the sample size and conducting molecular analyses on Lemongrass can be pursued.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Prevalence and Management of Alternaria Blight of Linseed
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2024) Ajay Kumar; M. K. Barnwal
    Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria lini is an important disease of linseed and causes severe losses in most linseed growing environments of Jharkhand. The pathogen generally produces necrotic lesions on the leaves and rarely on stems and pods of linseed plants. The initial symptom of the disease appeared on lower leaves as minute dark brown and black target like lesion on the leaves. Later the spots coalesce and covers the large area of the leaves. The affected leaves ultimately get dried up and curled. The morphological characters of the isolated fungus is as follows. The mycelium growth on PDA as white greyish at the margin with clear light to dark green zonation radiating from common center. Dark brown conidia in chains were observed ranging in sizes from 46-49 μm in length and 2.0 to 6.0 μm in width. The Conidia are dark, cylindrical to oblong, muriform without beak. The transverse septa ranged from 2-6 and vertical septa ranged from 1-3. Crops sown on 4th November recorded lowest per cent disease severity of 13.2 per cent. The crop sown on the above date also recorded highest grain yield of 1052.31 Kg/ ha. Per cent disease index (PDI) were significantly positively correlated with minimum temperature and evening relative humidity Whereas Maximum temperature, mean temperature and wind speed showed non-significantly positive correlated with PDI. PDI was significantly negative correlation with morning relative humidity, mean relative humidity and sunshine hours and grain yield. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides for control of pathogen showed that the fungicides (T7), Pyraclostrobin plus Metiram (0.1%) recorded lowest colony diameter of 12.0 mm and colony growth inhibition over control of 86.62 per cent, followed by Mancozeb (0.2%) which recorded colony diameter of 13.3 mm and colony growth inhibition over control of 85.17 per cent. The control plates showed colony diameter of 89.7 mm. In-vivo evaluation of fungicides for control of Alternaria blight of linseed envisaged that lowest per cent disease index of 8.5 per cent was recorded when two sprays of Metiram plus Pyraclostrobin (0.1%) was given. This treatment also recorded highest grain yield of 731.50 Kg/ ha and increase in grain yield over control of 32.8 per cent. When cost benefit ratio was taken into consideration then highest B:C ratio (2.60) was recorded in treatment (T4) i.e., two sprays of Mancozeb followed by two sprays of Mancozeb plus Carbendazim (1.63). when net return was taken into consideration then Highest net return was recorded when two sprays of Mancozeb (0.2%) was given which recorded a net return of Rs. 8738.8 followed by two sprays of Metiram plus Pyraclostrobin (Rs. 7539.9). In management of Alternaria blight of linseed through plant defense inducers showed that Lowest percent disease index of 8.6 per cent was recorded when seed treatment (ST) with Salicylic acid (SA) @ 50 ppm plus two foliar spray of SA @ 50 ppm at 30 days and 45 days after sowing (DAS) was given. This treatment also recorded highest grain yield of 787.04 Kg/ ha and increase in grain yield over control of 39.3 per cent. Linseed varietal screening against Alternaria blight of linseed, out of 23 entries. Six promising entries viz., Rashmi, RLC 164, RLC 92, Divya, RLC 155 and LMS 2016-1-5 showed resistant reaction against Alternaria blight of linseed under artificial epiphytotics.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ENHANCING PRODUCTIVITY OF PIGEON PEA BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM THROUGH NITROGEN MANAGEMENT USING NANO UREA
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2024) Peeyush Kumar Jaysawal; S. Karmakar
    Pulse is an important protein source for large portions of vegetarian population. Among the pulses pigeon pea is the prime Kharif pulse grown under rainfed condition in India and because of its slow initial growth, intercropping with cereals is a common practice where nitrogen management is a cumbersome process. Keeping these facts in view, a field experiment entitled “Enhancing productivity of pigeon pea based intercropping system through nitrogen management using Nano urea” was carried out during Kharif season for two consecutive years, 2021-22 and 2022-23 at Agronomy Research Farm, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi to find out a suitable pigeon pea based intercropping system with suitable nitrogen management using nano urea for improving productivity and profitability. The experimental soil was sandy-loam in nature having moderately acidic pH (5.51), low in organic carbon (4.83 g/kg) and available nitrogen (193.5 kg/ha), medium in available phosphorous (22.5 kg/ha) and potassium (201.8 kg/ha) along with microbial population of bacteria (28.9 × 106 cfu/g of soil), fungus (38.8 ×104 cfu/g of soil) and actinomycetes (8.7 ×106 cfu/g of soil). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with five cropping systems in main plots viz. C1: sole pigeon pea, C2: sole sweet corn, C3: sole baby corn, C4: pigeon pea + sweet corn (1:1) and C5: pigeon pea + baby corn (1:1) and the sub-plots comprised of five nitrogen management practices viz. N1: 100% RDN, N2: 50% RDN, N3: 50% RDN+ two spray of nano urea (4ml/litter), N4: 50% RDN + two spray of urea (2%) and N5: control with three replications. A uniform dose of phosphorous and potash was applied as basal, as per the recommendation of the crops. The crop varieties used were Birsa Arhar 1, Sugar 75 and BVM 2, as test crops to raise pigeon pea, sweet corn and baby corn, respectively. Periodic observations on growth, yield, quality, nitrogen use efficiency, soil fertility; economics and agronomic indices were recorded and analyzed using the standard statistical procedure wherever possible. Mean data of growth parameters, yield attributes, yield, harvest index, protein content, carbohydrate content and N content were recorded maximum in sole crop of pigeon pea, sweet corn and baby corn. Among the intercropping systems, sweet corn intercropped with pigeon pea in additive series recorded maximum values of growth parameters, yield attributes, yield, harvest index, protein content, carbohydrate content and N content under 100% recommended dose of nitrogen which was closely followed by 50% recommended dose of nitrogen with two spray of nano urea. The phenological observations of sweet corn and baby corn i.e., days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, tasseling-silking interval and days to 1st picking were recorded earlier under sole sweet corn and baby corn as compared to their intercropping system. The pigeon pea equivalent yield (3,869 kg/ha), protein yield (790 kg/ha), total N uptake (196.6 kg/ha), total P uptake (18.74 kg/ha), gross return (₹2,62,633/ha), net return (₹1,75,174/ha) were recorded maximum under pigeon pea + sweet corn intercropping system with application of 100% recommended dose of nitrogen which was found significantly superior over all other combinations except pigeon pea + sweet corn intercropping grown with 50% recommended dose of nitrogen + two spray of nano urea. However, maximum B:C ratio (3.03) was found with the application of 50% recommended dose of nitrogen + two spray of nano urea which was comparable to 100% recommended dose of nitrogen under pigeon pea + sweet corn intercropping system. Maximum LER (1.81) was registered under pigeon pea + sweet corn which was significantly superior over pigeon pea + baby corn intercropping system. Regarding nitrogen use efficiency, maximum partial factor productivity (52.5 kg economic yield/kg N applied), agronomic efficiency (24.1 kg economic yield increase/kg N applied), apparent recovery efficiency (115.4%), economic nutrient use efficiency (3.2 kg economic yield/₹ invested in nitrogen) and partial nutrient balance (1.43kg N uptake/kg N applied) were obtained with 50% recommended dose of nitrogen + two spray of nano urea and minimum with 100% recommended dose of nitrogen. After two crop cycles, a marginal improvement in soil organic carbon (4.86 g/kg) and available nitrogen (206.1 kg/ha) was recorded with 100% recommended dose of nitrogen whereas, increase in microbial population of bacteria (30.58 ×106 cfu/g of soil) and actinomycetes (9.17 ×106 cfu/g of soil) in soil was found with 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen + two spray of nano urea as compared to their initial values. Based on two years of experimentation, it may be concluded that pigeon pea intercropped with sweet corn (1:1 in additive series) is a promising intercropping system which can be grown either with 100 % recommended dose of nitrogen or with 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen + two spray of nano urea for harnessing high productivity, nutritional quality, profitability and maintaining soil health under rainfed acid lateritic condition of Jharkhand.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF SELECTED FARMER PRODUCER ORGANIZATIONS (FPOs) IN THE STATE OF JHARKHAND
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2023) Shilpa Rani Kujur; Niva Bara
    extremely small holdings, FPOs through collectivization leads to economies of scale which are supposed to address the problems and improve the bargaining power of farmers through backward and forward linkages. But all these expectations will be fulfilled when FPOs perform better. As this new extension approach is under operation in Jharkhand also, its appraisal has now become a matter of interest. On this background the present study entitled “Performance Appraisal of Selected Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) in the state of Jharkhand” has been taken up with specific objectives viz. to assess the Organisational Performance of the selected FPO and to study the contribution of FPOs towards selected socio-economic-personal characteristics of farmers. Exploratory-cum-Ex-post-facto research design was used to conduct the study in the three Agro-climatic zones of the state i.e., Zone IV, Zone V and Zone VI. Three districts, namely Hazaribagh, Garhwa and East Singhbhum were selected randomly from these three selected agro-climatic zones respectively. Further, two FPOs were chosen from each selected district those were either near to the district headquarters and another that is farther away. Twenty Respondents were selected from each selected FPO through Simple random sampling. Altogether the whole sample was consisted of 120 respondents. In order to study financial performance of selected FPOs altogether 10 variables were selected namely turn over, Share capital, profits current assets, current liability, total assets total liability, equity current ratio and debt-equity ratio and the data collected through secondary sources available with the selected FPOs. Further, to assess the contribution of FPOs towards socio-economic and personal characteristics of FPO’s farmers respondents altogether 9 variable namely, annual family income, saving, extension contact, social participation, mass media exposure, economic motivation and achievement motivation were taken in to consideration. Similarly, to study the socio-personal and economic profile with the respondent eight variable were selected, namely, Age, education, gender, family type and size, land holding, house type and farming experience. For measuring the above mention variable various scale and tests were developed and incorporated in to schedule. For collecting primary data, the respondents were personally interviewed. There was similarity in organisational structure of the selected FPOs. The selected FPOs differed significantly in terms of the indicators selected for measuring the FPOs financial performance. However, Majhiaon Farmer Producer Company performed the best. The FPOs contribution on Socio and Economic Characteristics of the farmer member were found positive for all cases. However, on Income parameter the differences among group have been found narrowed down in case of Majhiaon FPO and said to be as homogenizer for the group members. However, on the saving indicator no significant difference was observed. Further, provision of proper networking, monitoring and proper marketing channel can help in capitalizing the benefit of concept in real sense.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    e-NAM - A Comparative Analysis of Associated and Non-Associated Farmers in Jharkhand
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2023) Amrita Soni; B.K. Jha
    With the notion of creating ‘One Nation One Market’ Electronic National Agriculture Marketing (e-NAM) was conceptualised in the year 2015 and was implemented on 14th April, 2016 by Government of India. It is a pan India e-trading portal which seeks to network the existing physical APMCs through a virtual platform to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities and electronic payment settlement directly into farmers' account. In this background, a research study entitled “e-NAM- A Comparative Analysis of Associated and Non-associated Farmers in Jharkhand” was conducted with the specific objectives namely to assess the socio-economic and psychological characteristics of associated and non-associated farmers and to find out constraints in the access of e-NAM services. The study was conducted during 2022-23 with exploratory cum ex-post facto research design. Three districts belonging to three agroclimatic zones of Jharkhand were selected. From each district 20 associated and 20 non-associated farmers with e-NAM were selected. Thus, a total of 120 farmer respondents constituted the sample. Selected variables like age, occupation, family size, farming experience, land holding, annual income, marketable surplus, awareness about e-NAM, social participation, technosavviness, mass media exposure, extension contact economic motivation and achievement motivation were measured through test/scale/indices already developed or developed under the study. Data were analysed through suitable descriptive statistics like; frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation and inferential statistics as Chi-square, Discriminant Analysis and Max Min normalisation. The findings revealed that majority of the respondent farmers were middle aged, marginal farmers, had medium sized family. It is noticeable that associated farmers with e-NAM had low level of farming experience and had intermediate level of education while non associated farmers had medium level of farming experience and were educated up to high school. High level of social participation, mass media exposure, technosavviness, extension contact, economic motivation and achievement motivation had been observed among associated farmers, while low level of the same parameters had been found among non-associated farmers. Chi square values for farming experience, social participation, mass media exposure, technosavviness, economic motivation and achievement motivation were found to be significant, which indicates that that these variables play a crucial role in determining the association or non-association of farmers with e-NAM. Wilk’s Lambda tending to zero value signifies that there was a variation between the two groups with respect to various variables. Achievement motivation with discriminant coefficient of 2.00 had been found to be the most significant factor in distinguishing the population of associated and non-associated farmers. From amongst the 60 associated farmers 18.3% of them were found to have non-associated farmers type attributes while 10% from the 60 non associated farmers surveyed had associated farmers type attributes. Majority of the associated farmers accessed the portal with the help of traders. Maximum quantity of produce was sold by the farmers of Hazaribagh district. Marketable surplus of cereals in the associated category was found to be the highest whereas in the non-associated category marketable surplus of vegetables was the highest. Constraints faced by associated farmers in e-NAM service were analysed by using Gatrett Ranking method. Poor digital literacy (Rank I) succeeded by sometime not able to sell whole quantity of produce through e-NAM platform (Rank II) followed by, sometimes e-NAM price was less than mandi price (Rank III). From constraint variables point of view operational challenges in the working of e-NAM had been found to be the biggest hurdle in e-NAM services followed by socio- economic and marketing challenges. Based on the findings it could be concluded that e-NAM is yet to show its impact in the study area, hence there is a need for intervention to make the services easily accessible by maximum number of farmers.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PLANT DENSITY AND NITROGEN MANAGEMENT IN RYE GRASS FOR QUALITY FODDER PRODUCTION
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2024) Suraj Ranjan; Birendra Kumar
    Rye grass is an important multi-cut non-legume Rabi fodder. Rye grass sown in the last week of September recorded higher yield and more number of cuts (5-6 cuts) upto middle of April. The crop gets ready for first cut in 50-55 days after sowing and subsequent cuttings at 25-30 days intervals. It’s dry matter production is quite comparable with the traditional winter fodder, like Berseem and oat. Green fodder of Rye grass is much succulent and highly palatable. A field study entitled “Plant density and nitrogen management in Rye grass for quality fodder production” was carried out during Rabi season of 2021-22 at research field of Agrostology state plan unit, College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry under Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi. The field experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with four (4) different plant density viz. 75 % Recommended seed rate (RSR), 100 % RSR, 125 % RSR & 150 % RSR under main plots treatments, and four (4) Nitrogen levels, viz. 100% Recommended Dose of Nitrogen (RDN), 125 % RDN, 150 % RDN & 175 % RDN under sub plots. The recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) was 80:50:30:: N:P2O5:K2O kg/ha and Makhan grass variety was taken for the study. The soil was sandy laom with their initial status in terms of organic carbon (3.85 g/kg of soil), pH (5.94), available N (219.80 kg/ha), P2O5 (26.30 kg/ha) and K2O (136.70 kg/ha). Results reflected that, the growth, yield attributes & yield, quality and economics of Rye grass were significantly influenced by different plant density and nitrogen levels. Growth and yield characters of Rye grass improved with increased levels of nitrogen up to 175% RDN and 150% RSR recorded more plant density (231.25/m2). Among the various recommended seed rate (RSR), 75% RSR recorded tallest plant (30.83, 35.49, 34.78 & 26.83 cm) & highest crude protein content (13.26, 12.86, 12.69 & 12.50 %) at different cuts. The Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Leaf : Stem ratio (L:S ratio) were higher with 100% RSR at all the cuts, whose respective mean was (1.79 & 6.31). The treatment combination of 150 % RSR with 175 % RDN recorded highest tillers/m2 (754, 724, 709 & 593); Green fodder yield 491.08 q/ha (140.23, 152.44, 121.04, & 77.37 q/ha), Dry fodder yield of 80.84 q/ha (21.80, 27.13, 18.76 & 13.15 q/ha) and Productivity 3.92 q/ha/day (2.80, 6.10, 4.84 & 3.09 q/ha/day). Further, the treatment combination of 150 % RSR with 175 % RDN in terms of economic i.e. gross return (₹ 1, 46,854/ha), net return (₹ 1, 06,427/ha), B: C ratio (2.63) and profitability (₹ 851.42/ha/day) recorded maximum. Based on one year of experimentation, it may concluded that Rye grass (CV: Makhan grass) grown at 25 cm row to row distance with seed rate 150 % RSR (18.0 kg/ha) and fertilized by 175% RDN (140 kg N, 50 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O/ha) produced GFY (491.08 q/ha), DFY (80.84 q/ha), B:C ratio (2.63) with profitability (₹ 851.42 /ha/day).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF Psidium guajava AND Punica granatum against COLIFORM MASTITIS IN CATTLE
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2023) Sanjay Kumar Dubey; Parveen Kumar
    Based on the study it was concluded that Psidium guajava and Punica granatum given at the dose rate of 500 mg each by intramammary routs was found most effective.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Protocol Development of In- Vitro Cultivation of Bamboo ( Dendrocolamus As per )
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2002) Peddy Srikanth; Z.A. Haither
    Bamboos are perennial, woody and evergreen monocotyledonous arborescent grasses belonging to the family Poaceae (Graminae) and Sub-family Bambusoideae. There are about 75 genera and 1250 species of bamboos. Dendrocalamus asper is one of the economically important and widely cultivated bamboo species. The tender shoots of this plant can be consumed as food and is a good source of foreign exchange to various countries. Mature culms of this plant are used for pulp and paper manufacture. Bamboos are propagated artificially by different methods, including through seed. But utilization of seeds as propagating material is difficult and unreliable due to long and unpredictable flowering habit, short dormancy period of seed, poor viability, inborn microbial infestation, poor seed set during off-season flowering, seed sterility and large scale. Consumption of seeds by rodents and wild animals. The vegetative methods, on the other hand, are costly, lobour intensive, cumbersome and time. Consuming. These vegetative propagates are bulky, difficult to transport to distant places and their survival rates are also not very high. This limits large scale cultivation of bamboos in general. Under the situation, propagation through tissue culture seem to be a viable method for large scale propagation of the bamboo species. Therefore the present project was undertaken to establish a protocol for in-vitro propagation of Dendrocalamus asper. In the present study nodal segments (3-4cm) with axillary buds from young juvenile mother plant was used as explants. Surface sterilization using 0.1% (w/v) mercuric chloride (Hgcl₂) for 10 minutes followed by 3-4 times subsequent washing with sterile distilled water proved the best as it resulted the highest percentage (92.68%) of bud break after two weeks. The sterilized nodal segments were cultured aseptically on MS medium supplemented with 0-15 mgl-1 BAP and maximum shoot proliferation. (14-15 shoots per propgule) was achieved on medium supplemented with 12mgl¹ BAP. These proliferated axillary shoots were excised and subcultured on MS liquid medium +3 mgl BAP for the first two subcultures to increase the number of shoots. The shoot multiplication was achieved on both MS solid as well as liquid medium supplemented with 1-5 mgl¹! BAP Highest rate of shoot multiplication (fold) i.e., 15.77 was obtained on MS liquid medium supplemented with 3 mg l-¹ BAP in four weeks. MS solid medium supplemented with 3 mgl¹ BAP resulted only 8.55 fold. Incorporation of NAA (0.2-1.0 mgl ¹) to the medium along with BAP did not increase the rate of shoot multiplication and shoot length but it resulted in better quality erect shoots. MS medium in its full strength (1x) was found to be the most effective basal nutrient medium for shoot multiplication. The studies on sucrose concentration in the medium showed that 3% sucrose was essential for rapid multiplication of shoots. The effect of pH reflected that shoot multiplication occured even on acidic medium and highest rate of shoot multiplication (15.88) was obtained at pH 5.8. A regular subculture cycle at an interval of 4 weeks resulted in healthy cultures devoid of brown leaves and high rate of shoot multiplication. For in-vitro root regeneration on MS medium supplemented with 10mgl-¹ IBA yielded 90% rooting, 19.66 roots per propagule in four weeks, while 3 mg NAA supplemented MS medium resulted 91.66% rooting with 10 roots per propagule NAA resulted short roots while IBA resulted long roots. Addition of BAP (0.1-0.5 mgl ¹) to the rooting medium, neither enhanced root regeneration percentage nor improved the number of the in-vitro roots The cultured plantlets were successfully hardened under high humidity on sterilized soil sand FYM(1:1:1) mixtured with 1/2 strength MS nutrient medium irrigations (without organics).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Protocol Development of invitro Clonal Propagation of Orchid ( Vanda Spa)
    (Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, 2002) Ranjeet Kumar Sinha; Z.A Haither
    Orchids, one of the most beautiful group of flowering plants belong to the family Orchidaceae (Monocotyledons). The exquisite beauty of Orchid flowers due to brilliance in colour, remarkable range of sizes, manifold shapes, and variation in the form and wide range of distribution has aroused highest admiration throughout the world. The Orchid comprises about 800 genera with around 35,000 species. In India, about 1300 species of Orchids are found in Himalayas and others scattered in eastern and western Ghats. A vast majority of Indian Orchids are confined to mountain where they are distributed from base of hill to the elevation of 4300 m above mean sea level in climates ranging from tropical to temperate. Orchids are terrestrial, epiphytic, lithophytic or saprophytic but no Orchid is aquatic. The cut flower trade of Orchid involves 3% internationally. Major suppliers, like, Thailand, Netherlands and Singapore export flowers worth of US $ 80.0, 77.4 and 20.0 millions, in order per year. Due to their alkaloid, flavanoid, glycosides and other phytochemical constituents Orchids have high therapeutic value. The flower juice of Vanda coerulea is used to cure eye diseases. Cymbidium elegans, Cymbidium pubescens, Epicactic latifolia are used as local medicines. for treatment of nervous disorders. Orchids are also used in many countries as food or for making refreshing drinks. Unfortunately the natural population of Orchid is fast declining due to excessive collection and over harvesting by traders and botanical explorers. So there is need to cultivate and conserve the endangered Orchids. The conventional method of propagation is tedious and time taking. The alternative means of propagation is in vitro clonal propagation. Keeping this in mind the present experiment. on developing a viable protocol for in-vitro clonal propagation of Orchid (Vanda Miss Joaquim) was undertaken. The explant, like, shoot apex and shoot node were washed with detergent and teepol and then sterilized with 0.2% mercurio chloride for 10 minutes. The explants were cut in small pieces under laminar flow hood and subsequently inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium modified with different plant growth regulators. The inoculated materials were cultured under aseptic condition at 25+2°C with 16 hours photoperiod of 3000 lux. The medium containing 2% sucrose, 2 mgl¹ BA+ 0.2 mgl¹ NAA was best for shoot node culture and developed 10 shoots/node and 4 leaves per shoot. Protocorm like bodies were developed in cytokinins combination. The combination 1 mgl BA + 0.3 mgl kinetin proved better for getting higher number of buds. However, 7.67 buds/node were found with 1mgl kinetin + 0.1 mgl¹ 2,4-D in around 46 days. It is worthy to note here that 2 mg1¹ kinetin in absence of 2,4-D yielded 7.56 buds/node which is statistically at par with the combination treatment 1mgl kinetin + 0.1 mgl 2,4-D. The shoot apex culture gave significant results on MS. medium supplemented with 2 mgl¹ BA + 0.5 mgl'¹ NAA, 1 mgl¹ BA + 0.2mgl kinetin and 1mgl kinetin + 0.1 mgl 2,4-D. Sub-culturing of plantlet on 2 mgl¹ BA and 0.5 mgl¹ NAA gave about 70-100 shoots. Best result on rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 1 mgr¹ IBA+ 0.5 mgl¹ NAA, 1 mgr¹ NAA + 0.1mgl¹ BA. The maximum root length (49.5 mm and 60 mm) was obtained on medium supplemented with 1 mgr¹ NAA+ 0.1mgr¹ BA and 2 mgl¹¹ NAA + 1 mg/¹¹ IBA respectively. The cultured shoots were hardened successfully in pots containing bark, brick pieces and charcoal in 1:1:1 ratio.