Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/93739
Authors: NIKAM MAHALSAKANT, GANGADHAR
Advisor: Dr. V. RAVINDER REDDY
Title: EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON STARCH POLYSACCHARIDE HYDROLYZING ENZYMES ON BROILERS FED DIETS BASED ON GUAR MEAL, RAPE SEED MEAL AND COTTON SEED MEAL
Publisher: PVNR TVU
Type: Thesis
Series/Report no.: D;426
Agrotags: enzymes, biological phenomena, livestock, proteins, oilseed cakes, polysaccharides, concentrates, yields, research methods, soybeans
Abstract: The study was undertaken to derive a suitable NSP hydrolyzing enzyme combination to improve the nutrient utilization from corn-soy standard as well as basal diet and diets based on alternate protein meals (APM), viz. guar meal, cotton seed meal and rapeseed meal cake each @ 3 and 6 % for broilers by in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. The broiler diets containg corn-soy as well as diets with replacement of soybean meal by APM each @ 3 and 6 % were supplemented with xylanase @ fourteen various concentrations ranging from 0 to 80,000 IU/kg (0, 200, 450, 700, 1050, 2100, 4000,6000, 8000, 10,000 , 20,000, 40,000, 60,000 and 80,0000) respectively, the β-Dglucanase enzyme was supplemented to the broiler diets at eight different concentrations ranging from 0 to 10,000 IU/ kg (0,120,480,1400,2800,6000,8000 and 10,0000 respectively), The cellulase enzyme was supplemented to the broiler pre-starter diets at seven different concentrations ranging from 0 to 3,000 IU/ kg (0,100,500,1100,1500,1900 and 3000 IU/kg) respectively, The ß-mannanase enzyme was supplemented to the broiler pre-starter diets at nine different concentrations ranging from 0 to 10,000 IU/ kg (0,100,500,1000,2000,4000, 6000,8000 and 10,000) respectively and The pectinase enzyme was supplemented to the broiler pre-starter diets at eight different concentrations ranging from 0 to 10,000 IU/ kg respectively. The optimum sugar release was recorded at 4000 IU/kg for xylanase in all the three diets. The β-D-glucanase released maximum sugar from corn soybean meal based standard diet and 3 % APM was at concentration of 8,000 IU/kg. However, for the 6 % APM diet the concentration with optimum sugar release was 10,000 IU/kg. The optimum concentration (OC) of cellulase that released maximum sugar from corn- SBM based diet was at concentration of 3000 IU/kg, 1900 IU/kg for the 3 % APM diet and for 6 % APM the concentration with optimum sugar release was 3000 IU/kg. The optimum concentration (OC) of ß-mannanase that released maximum sugar from corn - soy based standard diet was at concentration of 8000 IU/kg, The 3 % APM diet yielded optimum sugar release @ 10,000 IU/kg, however 6 % APM the concentration with optimum sugar release was 8000 IU/kg.On the basis of optimum sugar released from the individual NSPHE the combinations were tested @) Lower (LC) and Higher (HC) concentrations respectively. The corn-soy based diet has released optimum sugar (106.91mg/g) in respect of xylanase at 200 IU/kg, the β-D-glucanase enzyme @ 120 IU/kg, the cellulase @ 100 IU/kg, β-mannanase at 100 IU/kg and pectinase was 200 IU/kg respectively for 100% (LC) which was significantly different (P<0.001) from the control, 200 % and 400% (LC). The diet supplemented with 200 % NSPHE has yielded significant difference in sugar release (P<0.001) compared with the 100 % (LC) NSPHE supplemented diet (73.51 mg/g) and control diet (50.64 mg/g). The maximum sugar release obtained for the 6 % APM supplemented diets were at NSPHE supplemented at concentrations 200 % (LC) i.e xylanase at 400 IU/kg, β-D-glucanase 240 IU/kg, cellulase 200 IU/kg, mannanase 200 IU/kg, and pectinase 400 IU/kg respectively. The APM diet supplemented with 200 % NSPHE has yielded significant difference in sugar release (P<0.001) compared with the 100 % (LC) NSPHE supplemented diet (73.51 mg/g) and control diet (50.64 mg/g). The maximum sugar release obtained for the 6 % APM supplemented diets were at NSPHE supplemented at concentrations 200 % (LC).The (HC) studies indicated optimum sugar release @ 1X (HC) for corn-soybean meal standard diet and 2X (HC) for corn-soy basal diet. The 3 % APM diet supplemented with NSPHE had shown optimum sugar release at HC (100%) were obtained for xylanase at 4000 IU/kg, β-D-glucanase 8000 IU/kg, cellulase 1900 IU/kg, mannanase 10000 IU/kg, and pectinase 4000 IU/kg respectively (116.11 mg/g) which was significantly different (P<0.001) compared with the control (50.64 %).The maximum sugar release obtained for the 6 % APM supplemented diets were at 60 % higher concentrations of NSPHE wherein xylanase was supplemented at 2400 IU/kg, β- D-glucanase 8000 IU/kg, cellulase 1800 IU/kg, mannanase 4800 IU/kg, and pectinase 2400 IU/kg respectively, resulting in release of optimum sugar @ 120.57mg/g compared with control (48.77mg/g) and 100 % (HC) (109.84 mg/g) respectively In broiler experiment I, two hundred and fifty (250) one-day old Ven-Cobb commercial broiler chicks were supplemented with the NSPHE at higher (HC) as well as lowers concentrations (LC) on corn + soybean meal diet. The NSPHE combination selected from in-vitro studies were tested on performance, nutrient retentions, slaughter parameters and cost economics. Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed with the BWG,feed intake, FCR and dressing yield when the diets were supplemented with NSPHE @ 1X (HC). Cumulative mortality did not shown any effect. NSPHE @ 1X (HC) has influenced (P<0.05) the dressing yield in broilers, however there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the breast meat yield, giblet percentage and length and weight of the intestine. Protein and energy utilization was influenced (P<0.05) by NSPHE supplementation @1X (HC). The NSPHE supplemented diet @1X (HC) has evolved as an economical combination for the broilers reared on corn- soy diet. The broiler experiment II was designed keeping in view the economics of the enzyme supplemented broiler diet. The level of NSPHE incorporation was kept same as that of the experiment I. The NSPHE supplemented at 2X (HC) had shown significantly higher (P<0.05) BWG in week wise as well as phase wise duration. The phase wise feed intake was significantly higher in standard control diet and NSPHE supplemented diet @ 2X (HC) (P<0.05) compared to birds fed with basal diet, 1X (HC) , 1X and 2X (LC) NSPHE respectively. NSPHE at 2X (HC) has influenced the FCR (P<0.05) during overall period (0-42) days. There was no effect of NSPHE on mortality. The dressing yield and breast yield was highest in the standard control diet followed by NSPHE supplemented diet @ 2X (HC). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the giblet percentage and length and weight of the intestine. The protein and energy utilization was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) in the standard control diet, followed by the NSPHE supplemented diet @ 2X (HC). The NSPHE supplemented basal diet @ 2X HC (T4) was found to be an economical combination for the broiler basal diets. The broiler experiment III was undertaken on 200 one-day old broilers. The best NSPHE combination obtained from corn- soybean meal standard diet (experiment I) and corn-soybean meal basal diet (experiment II) were incorporated so as to arrive at a confirmation of the results of experiments I and II. Supplementation of NSPHE at 1X and 2X (HC) concentrations in the standard and basal broiler diet did show significant differences (P<0.05) in BWG only during the prestarter phase. Overall feed intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in basal diet followed by standard control, 1X and 2X (HC) NSPHE respectively. Supplementation of NSPHE at 1X and 2X (HC) did favorably influenced the FCR (P<0.05) during overall period (0-42) days. NSPHE has no effect on mortality during the experimentation. NSPHE @1X (HC) had shown significant difference (P<0.05) in the dressing yield, breast meat yield of broilers. NSPHE @1X (HC) had shown significant difference (P<0.05) in the dressing yield and breast meat yield of broilers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) with the abdominal fat and giblet percentage when diets were supplemented with NSPHE at different concentrations. The NSPHE had exhibited positive effect (P<0.05) in respect to the length and weight of the intestines. The protein and energy utilization had shown significant variation in NSPHE supplemented diets @ 2X (HC) as compared to the basal diet. The NSPHE supplemented diets @ 1X and 2X (HC) have evolved as an economical combination for the broiler feeding when reared on standard as well as basal diets. The broiler experiment IV was undertaken on 350 one day old chicks The results for BWG indicated that apart from the improvement in BWG in the control diet there was a definite trend for the NSPHE supplemented diets (P<0.05). The 3 % APM diet supplemented with NSPHE at 1X and 2X concentration had shown significantly higher (P<0.05) BWG compared with that of control. The NSPHE supplementation was found to be effective only during the prestarter phase, 3 % APM diet supplemented with 1X and 2X NSPHE had shown significantly better (P<0.05) feed intake. However there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in FI during the starter and finisher phases. Supplementation of NSPHE at 1X and 2X levels influenced the FCR (P<0.05) during overall period (0-42) days. The NSPHE has no role with respect to cumulative mortality. NSPHE had shown significant difference (P<0.05) in the dressing yield and breast meat yield of broilers compared with the unsupplemented APM control diets. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the giblet percentage. The results obtained for length of the intestine were found to be significant (P<0.05) among the treatment groups. The length of the intestine was maximum (89.33cm) in 6 % APM supplemented diet @ 1X concentration. The protein and energy utilization was significantly better (P<0.05) in the standard control diet followed by NSPHE supplemented @ 1X. However the protein and energy utilization was comparatively better (P<0.05) in the NSPHE supplemented diet than the non supplemented diets. The 3 % APM based diets supplemented with NSPHE @ 1X , 2X and 6 % APM based diet supplemented with NSPHE @ 1X respectively were noted as an economical combinations for the broiler diets based on APM. From this study it can be concluded that the supplementation of NSPHE combinations developed from the in-vitro studies could be successfully applied for the invivo broiler experimentations. The NSPHE combinations found suitable for the corn-soy standard diet are xylanase, β-D-glucanase, cellulase, β mannanase and pectinase @ 2400, 4800, 1800, 4800 and 2400 IU/kg, respectively. The ideal combination for corn-soy basal diet consists of 4800,9600,3600,9600 and 4800 IU/kg of xylanase, β-D-glucanase, cellulase, β mannanase and pectinase respectively. Similarly for the APM containg diets each @ 3 percent, the derived NSPHE combination found optimum contained, 3200, 6400, 1520, 8000 and 3200 IU/kg of xylanase, β-D-glucanase, cellulase, β mannanase and pectinase, respectively. The NSPHE combination found suitable for the diet containing 6 % APM was 2400, 4000, 1800, 4800 and 2400 IU/kg of xylanase, β-D-glucanase, cellulase, β mannanase and Pectinase, respectively. Thus the NSPHE combinations as mentioned above were most effective to obtain an improved performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient utilization in broilers. Similarly the optimum NSPHE combinations as identified in the present study also were found economical in terms of reduced cost of feeding in broiler chicken.
Subject: Poultry Science
Issue Date: 2015-10-16
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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