Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/70669
Authors: Vinodkumar, G.
TANUVAS
Advisor: Kumar, V. Ramesh Saravana
Title: Disposal and Utilization of Poultry Carcasses by Windrow Composting
Publisher: Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Abstract: Windrow composting of dead birds with organic, inorganic and bioactiveaccelerators was carried out to study the feasibility of windrow composting as analternative option for disposal of dead birds and to assess the effect of acceleratorson composting process and quality of finished compost.Physicochemical properties of compost ingredients were analyzed. Moisture content was highest in poultry carcass (63.39 ± 0.40 per cent) followedby cage layer manure (34.87 ± 0.60 per cent) and coir pith waste(28.10 ± 0.58 per cent). Total nitrogen content in poultry carcass(101.09 ± 0.82 g/kg) and cage layer manure (20.98 ± 0.42 g/kg) were highercompared with that of coir pith waste (3.98 ± 0.36g/kg). Total organic carbon was highest in coir pith waste (53.36 ± 0.16 g/kg) followed by poultry carcass(49.13 ± 0.48g/kg) and cage layer manure (30.53 ± 0.36 g/kg). Based on the C:Nratio of ingredients five different treatment groups were formed with or withoutaccelerators/ additives viz., cow dung slurry, rock phosphate and biomineralizers( microbial preparation). Windrows with dimension of 8 feet (length) × 5 feet (width) × 2 feet 6 inches (height) were constructed with a replication for each of the treatment. Thetemperature of windrows (T1, T2, T3 and T4) containing dead birds reached thethermophilic phase on third day in winter and monsoon season but in summer itreached the thermophlic phase one day earlier. Temperature of windrow withoutdead birds reached thermophilic phase (above 55°C) on third day irrespective ofseasons. Peak temperature achieved during summer was highest (65.54 ± 1.39 °C) at the primary heating cycle followed by monsoon (63.62 ± 1.04 °C) and winter (62.82 ± 1.15 °C). During secondary heating cycle, peak temperature was comparable in summer (59.95 ± 1.51 °C) and monsoon (59.52 ± 1.73 °C) and higher than winter (58.18 ± 2.38 °C). Among treatment groups, windrows without dead birds had achieved lesser peak temperature compared with that of windrows with dead birds. Among windrows with dead birds, T4 (66.60 ± 0.82 and 62.93 ± 0.33 °C) had achieved higher peak temperature during both primary and secondary stage of composting. Persistence of thermophilic temperature was comparable during summer (20.30 ± 2.60 days) and monsoon (19.00 ± 2.54 days) and higher than winter (15.80 ± 2.18 days). Among treatment groups windrows without dead birds (4.50 ± 0.56 days) had lower persistence of thermophilic temperature than windrows with dead birds, which ranged between 19.00 ± 0.58 days and 23.67 ± 1.54 days. Among windrows with dead birds, T4 (23.67 ± 1.54 days) had highest and T3 (19.00 ± 0.58 days) had lowest persistence of thermophilic temperature. No putrefied or obnoxious odour, fly menace was noticed during all the seasons of composting, except few occasions. Composting process of dead birds took 59.17 ± 2.24 to 62.00 ± 2.54 days. The composting process during summer took 59.90 ± 4.37days, 51.60 ± 3.73 days in monsoon and 51.00 ± 3.99 days in winter. Moisture content of finished compost during summer (30.22 ± 0.30 per cent) was lower preceded by monsoon (32.99 ± 0.40 per cent) and winter (35.24 ± 0.47 per cent). Among treatment groups, moisture retention of windrows with dead birds was higher (32.81± 0.67 to 34.18 ± 0.74 per cent) than that of windrows without dead birds (30.73 per cent) at the end of composting process. Weight reduction was highest during summer (23.23 ± 0.79 per cent) followed by monsoon (21.86 ± 0.79 per cent) and winter (21.78 ± 0.78 per cent). Among treatment groups, it was highest in windrows without dead birds (26.63 ± 0.35 per cent) than windrows with dead birds (20.86 ± 0.53 to 21.61 ± 0.50 per cent). Volume reduction ranged between 14.91 ± 0.78 and 15.94 ± 1.10 per cent. Finished compost of all treatment groups had the pH value near neutral ranging from 7.85 ± 0.07 to 7.98 ± 0.07. Electrical conductivity and TDS values of finished compost of windrows without dead birds (3.92 ± 0.04 mS/cm and 2.61 ± 0.03 ppt) were higher than that of windrows with dead birds. Total ash of finished compost during summer (63.01 ± 0.37 g/kg) was higher than monsoon (61.88 ± 0.23 g/kg) and winter (61.19 ± 0.31 g/kg). Among treatment groups, T3 (63.57 ± 0.42 g/kg) had higher total ash content at the end of composting. Total organic matter (36.43 ± 0.42 g/kg) and total organic carbon (21.13 ± 0.24 g/kg) content of finished compost of T3 was lower than any other treatment groups. Total nitrogen content of finished compost of windrows without dead birds (12.37 ± 0.36 g/kg) was lower than that of windrows with dead birds (13.07 ± 0.24 and 13.62 ± 0.29g/kg). The C:N ratio of finished compost of windrows without dead birds (20.53:1) was higher than windrows with dead birds which ranged from 16.37:1 to 17.34:1. Calcium content in finished compost of windrows without dead birds (58.16 ± 0.52 g/kg) was lower than windrows with dead birds ranging from 60.64 ± 0.80 to 62.36 ± 0.83 g/kg. Phosphorus content in finished compost during summer (23.59 ± 0.20 g/kg) was highest followed by monsoon (22.30 ± 0.23 g/kg) and winter (21.57 ± 0.23 g/kg). Among treatment groups, T3 had higher phosphorus content than any other treatment. Potassium content of finished compost during summer (31.07 ± 0.45 g/kg) and winter (30.07 ± 0.52 g/kg) were comparable and lower than that of monsoon (32.66 ± 0.41 g/kg). The total bacterial count (TBC) was significantly reduced from the initial stage ranging from 7.21 ± 0.19 to 7.82 ± 0.16 log10 cfu/g to the range between 5.51 ± 0.08 and 5.49 ± 0.10 log10 cfu/g at the end of composting. The coliform count during initial stage ranged between 6.43 ± 0.15 and 6.94 ± 0.19 log10 cfu/g and it reduced significantly to the range of 3.62 to 3.75 log10 cfu/g at the end of composting. The salmonella count reduced to a non detectable level from 3.98 ± 0.08 to 4.52 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g. Finished compost showed good germination percentage for fodder seeds. The economic analysis of dead bird windrow composting showed to be remunerative. In conclusion, windrow method of disposal of dead was found to be suitable and remunerative.
Issue Date: 2014
Appears in Collections:Theses & Dissertations

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