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Authors: Sandeep Kumar
Advisor: CHANDOLIA, R.K.
Title: Three dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic and color Doppler studies of prenatal fetal development in ewe and postnatal testicular development in ram.
Publisher: LUVAS
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Agrotags: null
Keywords: 2D, 3D, Doppler ultrasonography, development, echogenicity, testis PSV, EDV, PI, RI.
Abstract: The present study was conducted on 2 to 2.5 year age six Harnali ewes and Six Harnali prepubertal rams maintained at sheep breeding farm, Deptt. AGB, LUVAS, Hisar. Rams were introduced to them and matings were monitored and day of mating considered as day 0. Sequential ultrasonographic scanning was conducted twice a week from day 20 to day 60, then weekly till the end of experiment in ewe to study the fetal development. To study testicular development in lamb ram, scanning was done bimonthly from 2 weeks to 4 month; then weekly from 4 months to 6 months. The ultrasonographic images were obtained using Toshiba Nemio-XG 3D ultrasound machine with intra-operative probe with 7.5 MHz frequency, convex 2D (5MHz) and 3D volumetric probe was used in both studies. The embryo and amniotic vesicle were first observed on day 23 and 29, respectively. Complete organization of the embryo into head, body and limb buds was detected by day 38. Ossification elements was observed in skull, mandible, limbs, vertebral column and nasal bone on day 41, 44, 44, 50 and 56, respectively. The fetal crown-rump length (CRL), BPD, chest depth (CD), abdominal diameter (AD), umblical cord diameter (UCD), ruminal length (RL), placentome diameter (PLD), and kidney length (KL) increased continuously till the end of experiment from first day of appearance except placentome which decreased in size after 97 days. The testicular parenchyma was observed to be anechoic at beginning of the development of the testes and it became moderately echogenic as age advanced. However, epididymal echogenicity observed lower as compared to testicular echogenicity. The measurement of testicular length and width revealed that development of left and right testis with age is exactly the same in Harnali lambs and are almost mirror image of each other. The epididymides dimensions increased with advancement of age in direct proportions and a high degree of symmetry was observed in epididymis tail growth. The peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) increased from day 38 to 139 days of gestation. The pulsatile index (PI) and resistive index (RI) of blood flow showed a non-significant decrease throughout the gestation. Similar trend was observed in blood flow parameters (PSV, EDV, PI, RI) to lamb testis as recorded in pregnant ewe. Doppler data regarding blood circulation to umbilicus and testis obtained in the present study might be useful in differentiation of normal and abnormal pregnancy and testicular development however, more studies are needed in this field. 3D scanning of testis showed greater details of internal structure of testis as compared to 2D. From the present study it is concluded that 3D scanning is more useful than 2D scanning to assess developmental changes of fetus in utero and postnatal testis.
Subject: Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Theme: Three dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic and color Doppler studies of prenatal fetal development in ewe and postnatal testicular development in ram.
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2019
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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