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Saxena, R. R.
|Title:||STUDIES ON EXTRACTION OF SINDOOR FROM ANNATTO SEEDS (Bixa orellana)|
|Publisher:||Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.)|
|Keywords:||ANNATTO SEEDS; BIXA ORELLANA; SINDOOR; PHYTOCHEMICAL; DESIGN OF MACHINE; EXTRACTION; SOLVENT.|
|Abstract:||The Bixa orellana is small perennial tree belong to family Bixaceae. Trees are available in various localities along with forest of Chhattisgarh state. It is primarily important for their reddish-orange color which is extracted from seeds. Different traditional methods for extraction such as maceration are very time-consuming and recovery in powder form from water extract requires higher energy. To overcome the issues the present research work was focused on to study the different physico-chemical parameter in view to propose a suitable conceptual bixin powder extraction machine of small capacity, which can be used at village level or at farm level. For this study the physical and mechanical properties of seeds was determined in view to design machine. Experiments were also conducted using various extraction medium (acetone, ethanol, chloroform, hexane and vegetable oil) to find out suitability of the extraction medium. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of biologically active compounds were also performed for the extracted powder. In background of the above information a small extraction machine has been designed. The length width and thickness of bixa seed was in the range of 4.18 mm, 2.98 mm and 2.18 mm. The bulk density, true density and porosity of seed range from 695.86 - 706.38 kg/m3, 1347.7 - 1351.8 kg/m3 and 47.74 - 48.51 kg/m3. The angle of repose was 43.87 - 47.12⁰. The maximum coefficient of friction was obtained in rubber sheet (0.38 - 0.4). Bixa seed contain 10.15 % protein, 3.73 % fat, 4.13 % ash, 33.84% fiber content and 44.98 % total carbohydrate at 4.45 %.moisture content. In different extract medium, maximum yield obtained with water (8.077%) followed by acetone (7.1%). In qualitative analysis of biologically active component in the extract, positive observations were recorded for phenol, flavonoid, tannin, terpenoids and carbohydrates in all extract. In different extract medium, maximum phenolic content obtained with water (808.23 mg (GAE)/100 gm of extract). The maximum flavonoid and saponin content obtained with acetone 15.17g qurecetin/100g and 4.95% respectively. For the extraction of sindoor from annatto seed at local level by the grower, producer or collector, mechanical process or machine are not available. Therefore, conceptual design is proposed for a batch type extraction machine having capacity of 5.0 kg/batch of annatto seed with following dimensions. The extraction machine consists of hopper, extraction chamber, frame, electric motor and stand. The extraction chamber consists of two cylinders (inner and outer cylinder). The outer cylinder filled with solvent such that annatto seeds in the inner perforated cylinder should be submerged in the solvent which facilities the extraction of bixin by loosing/dissolving it from seed. The rotating shaft has nylon brush which brushes the submerged annatto seeds in the inner cylinder. The bixin coat of the seeds brushed continuously by the rotating brush and gets dissolved in the solvent. The solvent containing bixin should be collected from the opening provided at the bottom of outer cylinder in the front. The machine should be operated with 1 hp electric motor.|
|Subject:||Agricultural Processing and Food Engineering|
|Theme:||STUDIES ON EXTRACTION OF SINDOOR FROM ANNATTO SEEDS (Bixa orellana)|
|Research Problem:||STUDIES ON EXTRACTION OF SINDOOR FROM ANNATTO SEEDS (Bixa orellana)|
|Appears in Collections:||Theses|
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