Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/5810111656
Authors: D. RAMBABU
Advisor: Dr. V. RAVINDER REDDY
Title: OPTIMIZATION OF LYSINE, TSAA, THREONINE AND VALINE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL BROILERS
Publisher: pvnrtvu
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Pages: 181
Agrotags: null
Abstract: As a part of optimization of dietary allowances of lysine, TSAA, threonine and valine for commercial broilers, was assessed by four biological trials were conducted. The growth trial was conducted on commercial broilers (Cobb 400) for a period of 0-42 days. Trial I & II: The initial 2 experiments were conducted simultaneously to study the effect of dig. Lysine (Trial - I) and dig. TSAA (Trial - II) on performance and carcass traits in commercial broilers. A growth trial of 6 weeks duration on broilers was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD), comprising thirteen dietary treatments; using 650 day-old commercial male broiler chicks (VenCobb). The chicks were distributed randomly into thirteen treatments; each treatment had ten replications with each replicate consisting of five chicks. Initially, varied levels of lysine and TSAA (Meth+Cys) were evaluated by keeping optimum ME and CP as recommended for commercial broilers (Cobb 400). The response criteria include performance, carcass yields and immune responses. The group fed NRC levels of (AA 1.10% lysine and 0.90% TSAA) recorded lowest body weight gain among all the dietary groups during pre starter phase. However, the variation in dietary concentrations of NRC and Cobb recommended lysine and TSAA did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference during the starter, finisher phase and overall experimental period. The feed intake was not significantly (P<0.05) influenced with dietary concentration of lysine and TSAA during overall experimental period. The feed / gain was not influenced significantly (P>0.05) by the variation in concentrations of digestible lysine and TSAA in diet during overall growth period (0-42d). Higher concentration of digestible lysine and TSAA in broiler diets significantly (P<0.05) improved the breast and gizzard weights. The dietary group supplemented with 100% Cobb recommended digestible lysine and 110% of the Cobb recommendation of TSAA recorded highest breast weight compared to all other treatment groups. The AA concentrations lower than the Cobb recommendations (90% of the Cobb recommendation) or NRC recommended dietary group recorded the lowest breast weight. However, the concentration of lysine and TSAA did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the dressing percentage, ready-to cook yield, and the relative weights of thigh, liver, heart and abdominal fat weight. Gizzard weight was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the concentration of digestible lysine and TSAA supplementation in corn-soybean meal diets. Higher gizzard weight was recorded at 100% digestible lysine and lower concentrations of TSAA (90% of the Cobb recommendation) compared to other combinations of AA in diet. The increase in concentration of digestible lysine and TSAA significantly (P<0.05) improved the relative weight of bursa. However, the dietary concentration of Cobb recommended digestible lysine (1.18%) and TSAA (0.880%) in treatment group T3 recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher weight of bursa among all the treatment groups. The concentration of Cobb recommended lysine (100%) and 110% of TSAA of the Cobb recommendation recorded lowest weight of bursa. However, the NRC and Cobb recommended concentration of digestible lysine and TSAA in corn-soybean meal diets did not significantly (P>0.05) influenced the weight of spleen in broilers. The humoral immunity evaluated in terms of antibody titers against NDV at 28th day and 42nd day did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference with the variation in concentration of digestible lysine and TSAA in corn-soybean meal diets. The cell mediated immunity evaluated in terms of CMI response to PHA-P injection, at 24h post inoculation was not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by dietary concentration of digestible lysine and TSAA in diets. The dietary concentration of digestible lysine higher than the Cobb recommendation and TSAA (110%) in broiler diets significantly (P<0.05) increased the serum total protein concentration. At 90% Cobb recommended concentrations lysine and TSAA in broiler diets significantly (P<0.05) increased the serum uric acid concentration. The variation in digestible lysine and TSAA concentrations in broiler diets did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference in concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDLC, LDLC and VLDL cholesterol in serum. However, the values of all the serum biochemical parameters are within the range of the normal values of commercial broilers. Trial-III: Based on results of the initial 2 trials graded concentration of digestible threonine (75, 70, 65 and 60 % of the digestible lysine) was tested in trial III to optimize threonine concentration in broiler diet. An biological trial of 6 weeks duration in broilers was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD), comprising five dietary treatments; using 250 day-old commercial male broiler chicks (VenCobb). The chicks were distributed randomly into five treatments; each treatment had ten replications with each replicate consisting of five chicks. Performance, carcass yields and immune response, serum biochemical constituents and cost economics of broilers was studied in this experiment. Supplementation of digestible threonine at decreasing concentration of (75, 70, 65 and 60% of d Lysine) did not influence (P>0.05) BWG at different weeks, phases and overall experimental period in commercial broilers fed corn-soybean meal based diets. The data on cumulative BWG indicated that increase in growth was relatively higher in treatment group T5 supplemented with digestible threonine 0.708, 0.630 and 0.570% (60% of the digestible lysine) in pre starter, starter and finisher phases respectively, than the control group (T1) supplemented with digestible threonine as 0.77, 0.69 and 0.65% during pre starter, starter and finisher phases respectively and overall experimental period. The concentration of (75, 70, 65 and 60% of d Lysine) digestible threonine in diet did not influence (P>0.05) the feed intake during different phases and cumulative feed intake in commercial broilers. The feed intake during pre starter, starter, finisher phases and overall experimental period was not affected (P>0.05) by the concentration of digestible threonine in broiler diet. The inclusion level of digestible threonine 100% of the Cobb recommendation (0.77%) in dietary group (T1) significantly (P<0.05) increased the weekly FCR during first and second weeks of age. However, the FCR was significantly (P<0.05) lower in dietary group T4 during 4th week of age. However, during pre starter phase, and starter phase significantly (P<0.05) lower FCR was observed in reference diet (T1) with the 0.77 and 0.885% (75%) of the Cobb digestible lysine recommendation. While, the FCR did not showed any significant (P>0.05) differences among the treatment groups (1-42 d) on supplementation of graded concentrations of digestible threonine in commercial broilers during finisher phase and overall experimental period. Supplementation of varied concentrations of digestible threonine in broilers diet did not significantly (P>0.05) influence the slaughter parameters like dressing percentage, ready to cook yield, and relative weights of thigh, heart, gizzard and abdominal fat. The lower breast weight was (P<0.05) observed in broilers fed digestible threonine 0.77, 0.69 and 0.65% in pre starter, starter and finisher phases respectively (100% of the Cobb recommendation) compared to other AA concentrations. The liver weight was significantly (P<0.05) lower in 65 and 60% Thr groups compared to all other threonine concentration. However, the liver weight was comparable between control diet (T1) and 75% of the Thr fed group (T2). Supplementation of digestible threonine in corn-soybean meal based diets did not influence the weights of bursa and spleen.The humoral immunity evaluated in terms of antibody titers to NDV at 28 days and 42d age showed no significant (P>0.05) affect in HI titers in groups fed different threonine concentration in broiler diet. No significant (P>0.05) difference was observed statistically even after inoculation of PHA-P indicating treatment groups did not have any significant influence on cell mediated immunity among dietary treatments. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in serum total protein, uric acid, total cholesterol, glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol among treatment groups due to variation in concentration of digestible threonine in diet. Variation in dig.Thr concentrations significantly influenced the serum triglycerides concentration in commercial broilers. There was significant difference (P<0.05) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol in serum between different groups. However, the 75% threonine group (T2) showed higher concentration of VLDL compared to other AA concentrations in the diet. Trial-IV: The results obtained from the previous studies, the fourth trial was conducted to evaluate the valine requirements through supplementation at graded concentration of 75, 70, 65 and 60 % of the digestible lysine with supplementation of crystalline digestible L-Valine in diet containing optimum concentrations of lysine, TSAA and threonine. A growth trial of 6 weeks duration in broilers was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD), comprising five dietary treatments; using 250 day-old commercial male broiler chicks (VenCobb). The chicks were distributed randomly into five treatments; each treatment had ten replications with each replicate consisting of five chicks. Performance, carcass yields and immune response, serum biochemical constituents and cost economics of broilers was studied. Concentration of digestible valine, 0.885, 0.787 and 0.712% in pre starter, starter and finisher phases, respectively (75% of digestible lysine) significantly (P<0.05) increased BWG at weekly, pre starter and finisher phase of commercial broilers fed corn-soybean meal based diets. The data on cumulative BWG indicated that significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed digestible Val 75% digestible lysine. The overall increase in body weight gain is significantly (P<0.05) higher in group fed diet with 0.826, 0.735 and 0.665% digestible Val (70% of digestible lysine) in pre starter, starter and finisher phases respectively compared to all other AA fed diet. The weekly feed intake as suggested significant (P<0.05) increase in feed intake in broilers fed 0.81% digestible Val (75% of the digestible lysine) in treatment group (T2) during 1, 2, and 4 week of age. The data on the phase wise feed intake indicating significant (P<0.05) increase in feed consumption during pre starter phase in digestible Val 0.89% (75% of the digestible lysine) broilers diet. However, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed intake during starter and finisher phases in commercial broilers fed diets with graded concentrations of digestible Val. The cumulative feed intake (0-42 d) indicated that, feed intake showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in broilers fed digestible Val as 0.826, 0.735 and 0.665% (70% of the digestible lysine) in pre starter, starter and finisher phases, respectively. The weekly FCR showed that inclusion of digestible valine at 60% of the digestible lysine significantly (P<0.05) increased the FCR during first, second, third and sixth week of age. The phase wise FCR values in this present study indicated that significant (P<0.05) reduction in FCR in groups fed 0.767% digestible valine (65% of the digestible lysine) during pre starter and 0.630 and 0.570% digestible valine (60% of digestible lysine) during starter and finisher phase respectively in commercial broilers. The data on cumulative (0-42d) FCR showed significant (P<0.05) increase in FCR in group fed digestible valine 0.708, 0.630 and 0.570% (60% of the digestible lysine) during pre starter, starter and finisher phases, respectively in treatment group (T5) in broilers. Supplementation of graded concentration of (75, 70, 65 and 60% of the digestible lysine) of digestible Val did not significantly (P>0.05) influence the carcass parameters like dressing percentage, ready to cook yield, thigh and gizzard weight of commercial broilers. The breast weight was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by variation in concentration of digestible Val in broiler diets. However, the lower breast weight was recorded in group fed digestible valine 60% of the digestible lysine compared to other concentration of the valine in diet. The liver weight was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by dietary Val concentrations in broiler diets. The lower liver weight was recorded in group fed with digestible valine 65% of the lysine compared to other dietary groups. The heart weight was significantly lower in groups fed 100% Val concentration compared to other valine concentration in the diet. The abdominal fat weight was significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the variation in concentration of Val in broiler diets. The lower abdominal fat weight was observed at 100% valine concentration in the diet compared to the lower concentration of the amino acid in the broiler diet. However, the abdominal fat weight was recorded higher in group (T5) fed digestible valine 60% of the digestible lysine in broiler diets. Supplementation of digestible Val in corn-soybean meal based diets did not significantly (P>0.05) influence the weights of bursa and spleen in the present investigation. The humoral immunity evaluated in terms of response to NDV at 28 days and 42d age was not (P>0.05) influenced by the dietary variations in digestible Val. No significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in CMI response to PHA-P inoculation due to the variation in digestible Val concentration in diet. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in serum total protein, uric acid, glucose total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol between treatment groups on supplementation of digestible Val in broilers diets. In all the four biological trials lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by supplementation of digestible lysine, TSAA, threonine and valine in broiler diets. In all the four biological trials livability was not affected by variation in the concentrations of digestible lysine, TSAA, Thr and Val in broiler diets. Based on the overall results of these biological trials, it can be concluded that, digestible lysine requirements for commercial broilers is 1.18, 1.05 and 0.95% during pre starter, starter and finisher phases respectively. The TSAA requirement for commercial broilers is 0.88% (100% of the Cobb recommendation) during pre starter, 0.72 and 0.66% (90% of the Cobb recommendation) during starter and finisher phases respectively. The digestible Thr. requirement for commercial broilers is 0.708, 0.630 and 0.570% (60% of the digestible lysine) during pre starter, starter and finisher phases respectively. The digestible Val requirement for commercial broilers is 0.826, 0.735 and 0.665% (70% of the digestible lysine) during pre starter, starter and finisher phases respectively considering the performance as the principal criteria.
Description: D-623
Subject: Poultry Science
Theme: VPS
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2019-03-26
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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