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|Advisor:||Dr. G .S.SREENIVASA MURTHY|
|Title:||EVALUATION OF CERTAIN INSECTICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF MUSCA DOMESTICA (LINNAEUS,1758)|
|Abstract:||Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most common flies in poultry houses. The high population density of the house flies in poultry farms causes irritation and annoyance to poultry handlers as well as causes an alteration in clutch and pause in layers and resulting in economic losses to poultry industry. In developing countries majority of the human population residing in slums and many rural areas, fly infestation is peak during hot and dry weather conditions. Hence usage of insecticides were introduced into the poultry operations. In this study the houseflies were collected in insecticidal cages from different poultry farms in and around Hyderabad, Telangana and were brought in the cages to the laboratory. They were maintained at temperature 27 °C with 70 % relative humidity and a 12:12 light/dark cycle. Water and food (milk and sugar) were provided to these flies, an oviposition site was also provided in the insecticidal cages for egg laying. The morphological studies of houseflies were done under 10 X objective microscope. The head part consisted of compound eyes, antennae and long proboscis with labrum epipharynx, hypo pharynx, labium with well defined labella ending with pseudo tracheal tubes and a pair of un-jointed maxillary palps on sides of proboscis. In the wing the M1+2 veins curved forward distally and the R5 (first posterior) cell was closed. The first abdominal segment was considerably reduced, being visible only on the ventral side, but the second, third, fourth, and fifth were well developed. The dorsal sclerites not only constitute the entire dorsal surface but also the lateral surface. For in-vitro evaluation three insect growth regulators viz., Diflubenzuron 25 % (Bayers, USA), Pripoxyfen 1.30 % (Martins, USA) and Cyromazine 2 % (Natural Remidies Pvt Ltd) were used. The three IGRs were evaluated at three different concentrations viz., mild, moderate and high. The concentrations of Diflubenzuron 25 % were 2.8 mg/100 ml, 5.6 mg/100 ml and 11.2 mg/ 100ml. The concentrations of Pyripoxyfen 1.30 % were 0.33 %, 0.65 % and 1.30 %. Cyromazine 2% concentrations were 2.8 mg/100 ml, 5.6 mg/100 ml and 11.2 mg/ 100ml respectively. The mortality rates of Diflubenzuron 25 % at mild, moderate and high doses on eggs to L1 were 67 %,88 % and 96 %. From L1 to L2 were 76 %,92 % and 100 %. L2 to L3 were 52 %,82 % and 100 %. From L3 to pupae were 52 %,72 % and 88 %. On pupae to adult 43 %,61 % and 78 % respectively. On adult flies there was no mortality observed in all doses. The mortality rates of Pyripoxyfen 1.30 % at mild, moderate and high doses on eggs to L1 were 85 %,90 % and 97 %. From L1 to L2 were 76 %,85 % and 94 %. L2 to L3 were 89 %,93 % and 100 %. From L3 to pupae were 72 %,88 % and 96 %. On pupae to adult 61 %,76 % and 87 % respectively. On adult flies there was no mortality observed in all doses. The mortality rates of Cyromazine 2 % at mild, moderate and high doses on eggs to L1 were 68 %,79 % and 94 %. From L1 to L2 were 75 %,89 % and 96 %. L2 to L3 were 77 %,85 % and 97 %. From L3 to pupae were 61 %,89 % and 96 %. On pupae to adult 46 %,59 % and 74 % respectively. On adult flies there was no mortality observed in all doses. The results of present study indicated that, all the three insect growth regulators used viz., Diflubenzuron 25 %, Pyripoxyfen 1.30 %, Cyromazine 2 %, can significantly (P< 0.05) cause mortality in housefly life stages (eggs to pupae). Among these Pyripoxyfen 1.30 % was more effective even milder doses, where as Diflubenzuron 25 % and Cyromazine 2 % were more effective at moderate doses. In-vivo evaluation of IGRs was done in an organized poultry farm with Diflubenzuron 25 %, Pyripoxyfen 1.30 % and Cyromazine 2 % for three consecutive days. There was no mortality of adult flies with the three respective Insect growth regulators. So, the results suggests 0 % mortality. This could be due to the basic property of IGRs showing detrimental effect on the developmental stages rather than on the adult stages of Musca domestica.|
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