Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Authors: FATMI, URFI
Advisor: Singh, Devi
Publisher: Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology And Sciences Allahabad-211007
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Pages: 168 p.
Agrotags: null
Keywords: Asiatic lily, growing conditions, pre-harvest leaf treatments, cut flower quality
Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effectiveness of pre-harvest leaf treatments on cut flower quality of Asiatic lily cv. Pollyanna under different growing conditions” during rabi season of 2014-15 and 2016-17 employing FRBD with three growing condition and sixteen pre harvest leaf treatments with three replications. The interaction effect of growing conditions resulted in significant enhancement in flower opening (37.67 days when grown under polyhouse treated with salicylic acid @ 2 g/l), bud length (151.26 mm when grown under polyhouse and treated with glucose 2 g/l), stem length (54.43 cm when grown under shadenet treated with kinetin @ 0.1 g/l maintained at pH 6.0), membrane stability index (63.97%) when grown under polyhouse treated with salicylic acid @ 2 g/l) and flower longevity (16.57 days when grown under polyhouse and treated with glucose 2 g/l). Plants grown under shadenet conditions resulted in significantly greater leaf area (16.62 cm2) and higher SPAD value (34.65). Maximum flower diameter (136.10 cm) was observed when plants were treated with K2SO4 @ 5 g/l. Simple and easily available chemical compounds had great impact on cut flower quality of Asiatic lily cv. Pollyanna, out of which glucose, salicylic acid, kinetin and potassium had significant effect. Production of Asiatic lily under naturally ventilated polyhouse during Rabi season is recommended
Description: Lilium sp. is cultivated worldwide and is one of the most important generator cut flower, pot plant and garden plant. The genus Lilium belongs to the family Liliaceae comprising of around 100 species and more than 9,400 cultivars, which are divided into seven sections (Comber, 1949). Northern hemisphere, mainly Asia, North America and Europe, especially China, Nepal, Korea and Japan, constitute the gene centres of this genus around the world. It is a genus of great economic significance for production and commercialization of its cut flower in the international cut flower market (Jimenez et al., 2012). In the language of flowers, lily symbolizes purity and innocence. Today, it is one of the most significant flowers grown by the cut flower industry. Due to its size, beauty and longevity, Lilium is among the top ten cut flowers in the world (Thakur et al., 2005).As a cut flower, lily is the fourth most important crop in the Netherlands. Species of genus Lilium, originated from Asia, Europe, and North America, are mostly vegetatively propagated monocot perennials and are one of the economically most important flower bulbs. Lilies produce big attractive flowers with a wide range of colours and shapes, therefore, they make excellent cut flowers, wonderful flowering potted plants and have a great ornamental value for landscape purposes. Worldwide commercially important lily cultivars, viz. Asiatic hybrids, Oriental hybrids and cultivars of Lilium longiflorum, originated from only three of the seven sections. Asiatic hybrids were obtained after complex interspecific hybridization between at least 12 species of the Sinomartagon section. Hybridisation between five species of the section Archelirion resulted in the oriental hybrids, whereas Lilium longiflorum belongs to the section Leucolirion. Crosses between L. longiflorum and 'Asiatic' lilies lead to development of 'LA' hybrids while crosses between L. longiflorum and 'Oriental' produced the 'LO' hybrids, specially the difficult hybridisation between Asiatic hybrids and Oriental hybrids ('OA' hybrids), a combination of the two most commercially important lily clusters, are a break-through in lily breeding and hybridisation (Van Tuyl et al., 1991). Intersectional crosses have considerably increased the availability of genetic variation in lilium for important traits. Out of total acreage of lily bulb production in The Netherlands, Asiatichybrids account for about 45% of this area, Oriental hybrids for about 40% and the cultivars of L. longiflorum for about 5%. The relatively new L. longiflorum x Asiatic ('LA') hybrids are already responsible for about 7% of the acreage of lily production. These different groups of lilies have many things in common but with few differences among them, some related to their morphological & anatomical structures and developmental patterns, while others related to their growing and environmental conditions. However for cut flower production, Asiatic and Oriental lilies are promising having gained admiration in recent years. The lily flower contains two alternating whorls of perianth segments (tepals). The individual flowers are usually arranged in an inflorescence, which contains several flowers in different developmental stages. Flower development proceeds acropetally. The number of flowers / inflorescence depends on the bulb size. At the commercial level, many forced cultivars having bulb size of 12 to 14 cm inches in circumference produce 3-8 flowers per inflorescence. Large and attractive flowers with the capacity to rehydrate after a long distance transportation, have made lilium gain popularity fast in our country. The cultivars are highly appreciated for their outstanding range of colours, fragrance and adaptability to several environmental conditions (Bahr and Compton, 2004). However, nearly all the cut flowers of lilium available in the florists’ shop are being acquired from Bengaluru, Pune and hilly areas of the country like Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and North Eastern regions. However, Asiatic lily varieties / hybrids grown by amateurs in the state of Uttar Pradesh are coming up well and blooming in wide range of colour, size and shape. Although agro-climatic conditions of the State are suitable for this flower crop, yet its commercial cultivation has not attracted the flower growers due to lack of awareness about the crop, quality planting material and knowledge about its production technology. Lilies are grown primarily for their flowers and thus, flowering is the most important event in its growth and developmental cycle. Quality of lilies depends on characteristics of its flowers and inflorescences, i.e. tepal and leaf colour, flower diameter, stem length and diameter which influence the final buyer’s perception and can obtain a higher price in the market. These qualitative traits are highly susceptible to environmental factors, such as light, photoperiod and temperature and may cause abortion of buds and flowers, blast or malformation, faded colour of leaves and tepals, reduction in flower size and stem length, etc. Phenological development regulates the plant growth and productivity. Productivity of a crop is influenced by important phenological events like earliness, fruiting and maturity of crop. Many researchers have reported the effects of climate and environment on growth, development and productivity of crops. Crop yield have been established to depend on the plant responses to environmental influences (Ellis et al., 1990), eg., temperature has substantial influence on crop timing & yield (Pearson, 1992), and light is primary determining factor of crop growth. Throughout lily forcing, temperature has the greatest influence on the rate of growth and development (Riviere, 1978). High temperature augments development and increase not only initiation of buds, flowers and fruits but also results in their abortion due to growing requirement for assimilates (Marcelis and de Koning, 1995). Light changes not only affects plant physiology, morphology and micro-structure but it also affects production as plant growth requires optimum light intensity, both excessively high and low intensity reduces photosynthesis in the plant. High irradiance leads to absorption of excessive light energy by the photosynthetic apparatus, results in inactivation or damage the reaction centres of the chloroplasts containing chlorophyll. Thus, photosynthetic activity is reduced due to photo-inhibition. In contrast, low irradiance results in insufficient ATP production to allow carbon fixation and carbohydrate synthesis leading to reduced plant growth. Plant quality is increased and height is usually reduced with naturally high light levels or with supplemental high intensity lighting (Boontjes et al., 1975). Escalating light intensity promotes photosynthesis, which enhances the rate of flower development and the number of flowers formed, reduction in bud abortion and enhanced total flower potential (Wilkins and Dole, 1997). Further, bud loss in hybrid lilies is promoted by high temperatures during the time of forcing (Boontjes, 1982; Roh, 1990), whereas light shortage leads tor bud loss (Durieux, 1975; Kamerbeek and Durieux, 1971; Durieuxet al., 1982/83), possibly due to changes in the distribution of assimilates causing exhaustion of the soluble carbon source in small buds (Roh, 1990; Van Meeteren, 1981). During flower evocation, most of the assimilates synthesized in the vegetative organs are transferred to the stem apex (Wang and Breen, 1984), and later to the earliest buds throughout their developmental stage, as lily flowers are strong carbohydrate sinks until anthesis (Wang and Breen, 1986). Flower is a complex organ which is composed of many different tissues, all of which senesce at different rates. Commercially, it is the life span of the petals which determines the effective flower life. The catabolic process of senescence of flower petals is facilitated by a succession of highly coordinated physiological and biochemical changes such as augmented activity of enzymes like peroxidases, RNAses, DNAses and hydrolases of cell wall polysaccharides, degradation of carbohydrate, changes in protein and nucleic acid content, loss of cellular compartmentalization and a climacteric upsurge in respiration. These changes resulting in senescence are associated with changes in gene expression and de novo synthesis of proteins(Halevy and Mayak, 1979;Borochov and Woodson, 1989).The rate at which petal senescence proceeds directly determines the longevity of the cut flower. Longevity of cut flowers is an important quality factor since it affects consumer satisfaction. As in inflorescence-type flowers, liliums are harvested with a large variation in stages of development of the buds within the inflorescence. The life of the inflorescence is a function of both the life of individual flowers and of the post-harvest development of the buds. As senesced flowers are unattractive, large number of the individual flowers on the inflorescence should open before senescence of the first matured flowers. Therefore, the longevity of the bottom flower is an important factor of the commercial life of the inflorescence. The postharvest development of the floral buds is largely dependent on the harvest stage of the inflorescence. The more mature the floral buds at harvest, the more flowers develop and reach anthesis after harvest (Swart, 1980). However, the extension of flower longevity is still restricted by genetic factors. Flower longevity can be affected by growing conditions, developmental stage of the flowers at harvest and environmental conditions after harvest. Cut flower senescence is closely associated with many factors such as variety, pre-harvest conditions, water supply, food supply (Sankat and Mujaffar, 1994) and mechanical damage during growth and post-harvest handling is also critical for vase life of cut flowers. However, growing conditions of the crops can affect the quality of cut flowers for about 30-70% (Halevy and Mayak, 1981). To control this natural phenomenon of senescence, many studies have been undertaken and many are being performed with objective of improved vase life of the cut flowers. But majority of the researches are based on post-harvest treatments using different chemicals in vase solution. However, pre-harvest leaf treatment with simple solutions can improve flower quality considerably. Carbohydrate i.e. endogenous soluble sugars, like glucose and fructose, is generally known to be used during respiration to maintain normal functioning of the tissue. Furthermore, it is used during growth for both structural biomass synthesis and osmotic regulation during cell expansion. Due to low light intensities during storage, transportation and at the consumer end, cut flowers largely depend on the presence of carbohydrates at harvest. In inflorescence-type ornamentals, with flowers in different developmental stages, competition for carbohydrate may occur and if the amount is insufficient, this may result in failure of floral bud development, smaller flowers, and/or a shorter flower life depending on the harvesting stage (Eason et al., 1997). Role of cytokinin as a contributor in flower longevity has been established for dicotyledonous flowers. In addition to their important roles in controlling and stimulating cell division, the cytokinins, zeatin, its derivatives and analogues also inhibit leaf senescence, an important factor in loss of quality of potted plants and cut flowers. Organic acids acts as source of both carbon skeleton and energy for plant cells and are utilised in the respiratory cycle as well as other biochemical pathways, thereby having the capability to influence the cut flower vase life. Citric acid and malic acid are the intermediary organic acids in Krebs cycle which produces cellular energy by oxidative phosphorylation. Citric acid is regularly used as constituent of many vase solution formulations, acting as a pH regulator, reducing bacterial proliferation resulting in enhanced water conductance through xylem of cut flowers. Malic acid is an organic acid which has diverse role in plant metabolism from osmotic balance of vacuole, key role in pH regulation and as an energy source for plant mitochondria. Antioxidants such as citric acid, vitamin c and salicylic acid, protect the plants against deleterious effects of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutralize oxidative stress by increasing in the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, thereby, increasing vase life of cut flowers. Potassium (K) is a macronutrient required for plant growth, after nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). It is required for completion of many essential functions in plants, including activation of enzyme reactions, protein synthesis, forming starch and sugars, regulation of water flow in cells and leaves and specially, maintaining the turgidity of gourd cells. Plants fed with appropriate potassium nutrition tolerates peripheral stress such as drought, frost, high light intensity and heat. Zinc plays a crucial role as a structural constituent and acts as regulatory co-factor for a wide range of various enzymes in many vital biochemical pathways, which are mainly concerned with carbohydrate metabolism, both in photosynthate synthesis & in conversion of sugars to starch, auxin metabolism, protein metabolism, maintenance of integrity of biological membranes, pollen formation, and resistance to certain pathogens.
Subject: Horticulture
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2018
Appears in Collections:Thesis

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Compiled thesis 13PHHORT106 URFI FATMI.pdfPh.D Thesis of URFI FATMI ID no. 13PHHORT1063.44 MBAdobe PDFThumbnail

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.