Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/5810092265
Authors: SWATHI NAGARAJ
Title: COMPARITIVE STUDY OF MID-DAY MEAL (MDM) FOOD SUPPLY FROM LOCAL FOOD MODEL AND CENTRALIZED KITCHEN AND ITS IMPACT ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN
Publisher: PROFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
Citation: D 10,225
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Pages: 141p.
Agrotags: null
Abstract: The National Programme of Nutritional support to Primary Education (NP NSPE), popularly known as the ‘Mid Day Meal Scheme’ was launched in 1995 under the Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) to increase enrollment, attendance and simultaneously to improve the nutritional status of children in primary classes. This programme covers over 10.46 crore children in 12 lakh primary schools across the country, and the programme is considered as a flagship programme of the Govt. of Inda. The study was conducted in three districts of Telangana state, delimiting to the zones of Medak for MDM supply from Akshaya Patra Foundation (AP model), twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad for MDM supply from Naandi Foundation (NF model) and Karimnagar for Local Food Model (LF model). A multistage stratified random sampling was used for selection of schools in the selected districts. Altogether, 450 children (with an equal representation of boys and girls) studying from Class I to Class VIII, belonging to 9 schools, three schools from each MDM model were selected. In any MDM model studied, a half pf the children were girls; > 50% children were in the age of 10-12years and 25-41% in 13-15years; by studies, 40% belonged xvii to primary classes (I-V class) and the remaining 60% were in upper primary (VI to VIII class) with reasonable distribution that enabled evaluating food in terms of its acceptability, sufficiency and quality. From the study it was observed that all the children from the three models had MDM served only during lunch break and consumed food in the school premises itself. It was encouraging to know that all the dishes served in mid-day meal were mostly preferred by children. The children were given varied dishes like kichidi, rice and dal, rice and sambar, vegetable pulav, tamarind rice, fried rice, jeera rice, boiled eggs, fruits and other snacks like groundnut chikki, biscuits, pickles, etc. Eggs and fruits were served twice a week, as per the norms while, in Akshaya Patra model, only fruit was served. Children attending the school without any breakfast accounted for 3% from Local Food Model and 13% from Naandi Foundation model, and these children appeared to be of more vulnerable. Children acknowledging to have received adequate food from MDM were 68%, 52% and 55%, from LF, AP and NF models respectively. It was known that 13.3% children from schools in Hyderabad had no drinking water facility and the children were forced to get drinking water from their houses. The acceptability of food items served were computed from the individual responses on six aspects of MDM, namely, quantity, quality, taste, texture, flavor, appearance and overall acceptability which were rated ‘good’ by 86 to 97% children in NF model, 81 to 93% in LF and 45 and 100% children in AP model, for different criteria of acceptability. The Body Mass Index (BMI) of children indicated that 38.7%, 52% and 32% (boys) and 30.5%, 50.3% and 29.2% (girls) belonging to the LF, NF and AP models respectively were in BMI<5.0 percentile indicating malnutrition, still prevailing among children, highest prevalence being in NF model in Hyderabad, which could be due to urban dwelling also. The other anthropometric measurement like triceps skin fold, mid upper arm circumference also supported this observation. The mean weight/age of 9yrs, 10-12yrs and 13-15yrs was compared with IAP standards and has found with no significant difference between the boys of all the three MDM models. The mean weights of 9yrs girls has no significant difference while, 10-12yrs had significant difference (p<0.05) between the models with highest weight in LFM followed by NF and AP model. Weights of 13-15yrs girls had xviii significant difference (p<0.05) between the models with highest weight in NF followed by AP and LFM. The mean of height of 9yrs boys was found significantly different (p<0.05) between the models, with tallest being in NF followed by LF and AP models. Children of 10-12yrs from AP model were significantly shorter (p<0.05) compared to LF and NF models and no significance was seen between LF and NF models. Heights of 13-15yrs boys were not significantly different from each other in any model. The mean height of 9yrs girls was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) between model, with highest in NF followed by LF and AP models. Heights of 1012yrs girls of AP model was significantly lower (p<0.05) than LF and NF models but no significant difference was found between NF and LF models, while height of girls of 13-15yrs did not differ significantly between models. The mean BMI of 9yrs, 10-12yrs and 13-15yrs of boys had no significant difference between MDM models. The mean BMI of 9yrs and 10-12yrs girls of LF, NF and AP models had no significant difference, while, BMI of girls of 13-15yrs was found to be significantly different t(p<0.05) with highest BMI in LF model followed by NF and AP models. The mean triceps of 9yrs old boys was found significantly different (p<0.05) between the three models, with highest triceps measurement being in NF followed by LF and AP models. Tricep skinfold of 10-12yrs boys was found highly significant (p<0.05) in children of NF model followed by AP and LFM. The difference in triceps of 13-15yrs was found to be significantly high in NF followed by AP and LF model. The mean triceps skinfold measurement of 9yrs and 10-12yrs girls has no significant difference between any model while, in 13-15yrs girls it was found highly significant (p<0.05) with high triceps in AP model followed by NF and LF models. Children of 9yrs boys from NF model were significantly having highest MUAC (p<0.05) compared to LF and AP models. No significant difference was found among 10-12yrs boys of any model. The mean MUAC of 13-15yrs old boys was having significantly highest MUAC (p<0.05) in NF followed by AP and LFM. Girls of 9yrs, 10-12yrs and 13-15yrs did not have significant difference in the MUAC/age measurements. The major nutritional deficiency found in children was anaemia and energy deficiency. A few cases of B vitamin deficiency were seen. The reasons for the xix symptoms could be inadequate intake of food. Few children suffered from common ailments like diarrhea, vomiting, fever, ulcers, cold, cough, stomach pain, weakness, chicken pox in the last fortnight where, children from NF model had higher incidence of morbidity followed by LF and AP models. Congested schools, crowded urban slum dwelling cities like Hyderabad could be the reasons for high incidence of health problem along with improper and inadequate intake of food among children. Low intake and low serving of cereal (66-73gms) in all the three MDM models, pulse was average (14-36gms), vegetable serving was less (21-50gms) and oil was also used in less amount (0.7-2gms). The poor intake of oil, vegetables and cereals mainly due to overall quantity of MDM served or consumed by the child, which was lower than the quantities recommended and might not be a representation of what has gone into preparation. Since the children were found to be served low amount of MDM, neither it satisfied hunger of children, nor it met 1/3rd nutrient recommendation. The recommendations for nutrients through MDM were in the order of 450k.cal energy, 12g protein and 5.0g fat for primary school children and 700k.cal energy, 20g protein and 7.5g fat. However, in all the three models, the calorific value of the food was less than 60 to 80%. The LF Model appears to be satisfying the protein (12%) and fat (5%) content as per norms; while the AP model was deficient in protein and fat content in the food served. Energy intake of 9yrs children was least in NF model followed by LF and AP models in the increasing order. In spite of the high variation between energy supply from LF/NF and AP models, no significant difference (p<0.05) was observed. Protein intake through MDM was much less than the 1/3rd requirement with no significant difference, while, fat intake from LF was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) than NF and AP models. Significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the children of 10-12yrs with highest intake of energy in LFM, compared to NF and AP models, and NF model supplying higher energy compared to AP model. The protein intake was observed to be significantly different between AP and NF/LF models (p<0.05), but with no significant difference between NF and LF. The fat intake was lowest from AP model followed by NF and LF models with significant difference (p<0.05) between the three models. xx The mean energy intake of 13-15yrs children was least in AP model followed by LF and NF models in the increasing order. Significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the energy intake of children in all 3 models. The protein intake was observed significant difference (p<0.05) between all 3 models. The fat intake was lowest from AP model followed by NF model and LFM with significant difference (p<0.05) between all three models. Scholastic performance of children showed that 35% of them were in A grade and 33% in B grade. The correlation between nutritional status and academic performance showed that weight/age, height/age, BMI/age and MUAC had significant positive relationship with academic performance. However, relationship of triceps with academic performance, though positive was not significant except in NF model where it was significant. On the whole, the study revealed that the Local Food model was better accepted realizing the goals of the MDM programme with better rank compared to the other two central kitchen models. However, the central kitchen models could be improved by decentralizing cooking, catering to schools in the proximity of 5km radius. As per the teachers and the student’s perception, the MDM programme is well accepted, but need much more improvement in its implementation and monitoring.
Subject: Food and Nutrition
Theme: Food and Nutrition
These Type: M.Sc
Issue Date: 2017
Appears in Collections:Theses

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COMPARITIVE STUDY OF MID-DAY MEAL (MDM) FOOD SUPPLY FROM LOCAL FOOD MODEL AND CENTRALIZED KITCHEN AND ITS IMPACT ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN24.09 MBAdobe PDFView/Open Request a copy


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