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|Advisor:||Dr. B. SWATHI|
|Title:||EFFECT OF REPLACEMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC GROWTH PROMOTER WITH PROBIOTIC ON PEREFORMANCE, INTESTINAL GUT HEALTH AND IMMUNE COMPETENCE IN BROILERS FED WITH MEAT CUM BONE MEAL|
|Abstract:||An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacement of antibiotic growth promoter with probiotic on performance, intestinal gut health and immune competence in broilers fed with meat cum bone meal. Three hundred, one-day-old broiler chicks (Vencobb 430) were purchased from local hatchery and were randomly allotted to 6 dietary groups and each group had ten replicates of five chicks each. The experimental period was 42 days. Experimental diets include basal diet (NC), basal diet with inclusion of meat cum bone meal (PC), basal diet with inclusion of antibiotic (NC+AGP), basal diet with inclusion of probiotic (NC+PRO), basal diet with inclusion of antibiotic and meat cum bone meal (PC+AGP) and basal diet with inclusion of probiotic and meat cum bone meal (PC+PRO). Body weights, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded at weekly intervals. Six birds from each treatment was selected randomly at 21 day of age and sacrificed. Intestines were dissected and contents were collected for enumeration of intestinal microflora. Serum samples were collected at 35 day of age and assayed for estimation of total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and blood urea nitrogen and also to assess humoral immune response. Blood samples were taken from wing vein at 42 days of age for blood analysis, including total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percentage, packed cell volume, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. One bird from each replicate was selected and sacrificed at the end of the experiment by cervical dislocation, and liver, thigh, breast, giblet were collected, weighed and calculated as a percentage of body weight. Tissue samples were collected after slaughter for histological studies. Six birds from each treatment were selected randomly after 42 days of experiment and a metabolic trail of 3 days was conducted. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P<0.05) affected at 4th week of age. Higher body weight gain was observed during 4th week and starter phase of experiment in antibiotic supplemented group of birds which was comparable with probiotic supplementation group. Overall, highest body weight gain was recorded in birds fed with basal diet supplemented with probiotic and antibiotic. However, inclusion of probiotic in basal diet with meat cum bone meal also showed improved overall body weight gain when compared to positive control group. Overall highest feed intake and feed conversion ratio was recorded with probioitc and antibiotic fed birds in basal diet. Birds supplemented with probiotic in positive control diet showed improved feed intake and feed efficiency when compared to antibiotic and control diet supplemented groups. Total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percentage, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count were significantly (P<0.01) increased in antibiotic and probiotic supplemented groups without inclusion of meat cum bone meal when compared to those birds fed with basal diet alone. While, in probiotic supplemented positive control group hemoglobin, lymphocyte, monocyte and granulocyte percentage was higher (P<0.05) when compared with antibiotic and positive control group birds. A significant (P<0.05) increase in serum total protein levels was observed in birds fed with probiotic in basal diet. Birds receiving probiotic in diet with or without meat cum bone meal inclusion showed higher (P<0.05) serum glucose levels compared to other experimental groups and control groups. Duodenum and jejunum villus height were significantly (P<0.01) increased in all dietary groups compared to their control groups. Lower (P<0.01) crypt depth and higher villus height to crypt depth ratio was observed in duodenum and jejunum of birds supplemented with antibiotic or probiotic in their basal diet with or without inclusion of when compared to their controls. A significant (P<0.05) increase in villus width was observed in probiotic group compared to control group of basal diet. Significantly (P<0.05) lowered total bacterial count and Escherichia coli count were observed in ileum and jejunum of birds receiving probiotic or antibiotic in basal diet in comparison with birds fed with basal diet alone. Probiotic supplementation in positive control showed lowered Escherichia coli count in ileum and total bacterial count in jejunum when compared to antibiotic and control group birds. Colstridium count was lowered in probiotic or antibiotic groups when compared to their controls, though it was not statistically significant. Higher dry matter, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus retention (P<0.05) was observed in birds supplemented with probiotic or antibiotic in diet with or without meat cum bone meal when compared to their controls. Birds fed with antibiotic or probiotic with or without meat cum bone meal showed significantly (P<0.05) improved humoral and cell mediated immune response when compared to their control groups. Birds supplemented with antibiotic or probiotic with or without meat cum bone meal showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in thigh yield when compared to their control groups. A non-significant reduction in abdominal fat was observed with probiotic supplemented in basal group diet compared to all other experimental groups and dietary groups. To conclude, probiotic supplementation in basal diet improved overall body weight gain, total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percentage, total leukocyte count, differential count, total increased serum protein and glucose levels, increased thigh yield, improved duodenum and jejunum morphometry, lowered ileum and jejunum microflora, better immune response, improved nutrient retention in birds when compared to basal diet fed birds. While, supplementation of probitoic in positive control diet improved body weight gain, lymphocyte and monocyte percentage, serum glucose levels, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in duodenum, humoral and cell mediated immune response, thigh yield, crude protein retention, jejunum morphomerty, lowered ileum Escherichia coli count and jejunum total bacterial count when compared to positive control diet. Thus considering the negative effects of antibiotics, probiotics may be considered as safer alternative. However, addition of probiotic could not affect certain parameters particularly in meat cum bone meal supplemented groups such as feed intake, feed conversion ratio, hematological parameters, certain bio chemical parameters, carcass characteristics, duodenum villus width and crypt depth, ileum total bacterial count, jejunum Escherichia coli count, dry matter, calcium and phosphorus retention. Thus, further studies may be needed to investigate the effect of probiotic in different dosage or combination of different strains on performance, gut health and immune competence in broilers fed with meat cum bone meal.|
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