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Authors: Mairiga, Ismaila Alhaj
Advisor: Rana, Yudhvir Singh
Title: Investigations on common pathogens of neonatal diaorrhea and assessement of passive transfer of Immunity in buffalo calves
Publisher: LUVAS
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Agrotags: null
Keywords: Diaorrhea, Neonates, Buffalo Calves, Dams, Pathogens, Meconial-IgG, Faecal-IgG, Oral fluid-IgG, , Urine-IgG, Colostral-IgG, Milk-IgG, Serum-IgG, TLR4 and CARD15/NOD2 gene transcripts
Abstract: Diarrhoea is the most commonly reported calf disease and a major cause of calf morbidity and mortality worldwide Diarrhea in young calves is the main cause of economic losses through poor growth, morbidity and mortality, and the role played by common pathogens of Calf diaorrheaa in producing the syndrome in calves has received a great attention by many researchers and yet the syndrome persist.In the present study 78 faecal samples were collected from Buffalo Calves and their Dams and Calves were categorized into 3 groups of Day- 1 to 2 -Days, Day -3 to 3- Months and a group of 4 to 6 Months of age. A total of 38 positive faecal samples were recorded as Escherichia coli positive, including some of their virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. This comprised of 23(60.53) from Buffalo Calves and 15(37.50) from Buffalo Dams. Similarly an examination of same number of samples from same animals with and without diarrhea revealed 11 (28.95) positive faecal samples with genus specific and other genes of Salmonellain from buffalo calves and 2 (05.00) as positive faecal samples from Buffalo Dams after examining a total of 40 faecal samples. stn, invA and sef are virulence genes of Salmonella detected respectively numbering 7, 6 and 5 out of a total of 13 positive faecal samples recorded. Salmonella typhi genes were detected in all Salmonella positive faecal samples. However, Salmonella enteritidis gene was not detected in all screened samples including Salmonella positive ones. A similar examination of a total of 38 and 40 faecal samples from Buffalo Calves and Dams with and without diarrhea revealed Cryptosporidium positive samples as10 (37.04 ) and 17 (62.96) respectively from buffalo calves and Dams. An examination and analysis of 78 diarrheic and non-diarrheic faecal samples from Buffalo Calves and Dams, revealed a negative detection of Rotavirus and Coronavirus by RNA-PAGE and PCR analysis. Bovine IgG concentration was detected from Colostrum, Milk, Urine, Oral fluid, Meconium, Faeces and Serum samples.High concentrations of IgG were detected from Colstrums, Milk and Sera while low concentration of same was detected from Meconium, Faeces, Oral fluid and Urine samples.Success of passive transfer of immunity from Buffalo Dams to their Calves was confirmed by simple detection of variable concentrations of Bovine IgG in screened Calves. TLR4 and CARD15/NOD2 gene transcripts were detected from PBMC‟s of Buffalo Calves. Similarly, TLR4 and CARD15/NOD2 gene transcripts were detected from Colostral leucocytes of Buffalo Dams. Despite evidences of interplay of Innate and Adaptive immune responses as witnessed in the present study, a syndrome of diarrhea was recorded and this explains some levels of Resistance, Tolerance and Susceptibility exhibited by different Calves and Dams examined during the course of the study. This outcome affirms that diarrhea syndrome is still considered to be a threat to the survival of neonatal Calves and by extension a major contributer to loss/reduction of replacement heifers in subsequent production circles. It is therefore suggested that further research should be intensified on importance of immunotherapy as an alternative to antibiotic therapy in addition to an indepth understanding of roles of genetic immunity essential for selection of breeds and individuals with optimal genetic potentials for maximum yield in the next production circle.
Subject: Veterinary Medicine
Theme: Investigations on common pathogens of neonatal diaorrhea and assessement of passive transfer of Immunity in buffalo calves
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2018
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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