Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/5810084245
Authors: Sunil Kumar
Advisor: Jain, Dr. S.K.
Title: Evaluation of withania somnifera and resveratrol in ameliorating the combined subacute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and malathion in rat
Publisher: LUVAS
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Agrotags: null
Keywords: Chloropyrifos, Malathion, Withania somnifera, Resveratrol, MTD, Oxidative stress, Haematology
Abstract: Chloropyrifos and malathion are insecticides used for pest control in agriculture and animals. They are known to target the (AChE) enzyme both in insects and mammals. The aim of our study was to ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to investigate the combined subacute toxicity of chloropyrifos and malathion and their amelioration by Withania somnifera and resveratrol in rats. The MTD of chloropyrifos was determined to be 190mg/kg body weight orally in male rats. The MTD of malathion was determined to be 900mg/kg body weight orally in male rats. The main clinical signs and symptoms found in chloropyrifos toxicity were decreased feed intake, loss of body weight, rough hair coat, diarrhoea, dyspnoea, ataxia, eye discharge, salivation, increased startle response, somnolence, gradual development of hind limb extensor tone, seizures, inco-ordination and tremors. The main clinical signs found in malathion toxicity were CNS excitation, followed by depression. A variable sequence of motor symptoms developed that involved occasional pawing, or burrowing, coarse whole body tremor associated with movement, gradual development of hind limb extensor tone, chewing, licking and salivation. Finally, choreoathetosis (sinous writhing) developed and animals exhibited slow twisting or writhing movement of neck and tail. At the terminal stage, animals showed laboured breathing, gasping and death. Combined treatment of chloropyrifos and malathion resulted in decrease in body weight gain (both absolute and relative) in 14 as well as in 28 days study, which were restored by Withania somnifera and resveratrol co-treatment. No significant change was observed in relative liver weight in 14 days study, while significant change was observed in relative liver weight in 28 days study, which was non-significantly restored by Withania somnifera and resveratrol cotreatment. No significant change was observed in relative kidney weight in 14 as well as in 28 days study. Significant change in relative brain weight was observed which was restored by Withania somnifera and resveratrol co-treatment in 14 as well as in 28 days study. Combined treatment of chloropyrifos and malathion produced significant changes in oxidative stress markers viz. malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, nitric oxide, protein carbonyls, tissue protein which were significantly restored by Withania somnifera and resveratrol co-treatment in 14 as well as in 28 days study. Liver and kidney function tests viz. ALT, AST, GGT, BUN and creatinine were significantly increased which were restored to normal with Withania somnifera and resveratrol co-treatment in 14 as well as in 28 days study. A decline in TEC, TLC, Hb, PCV, MCH and MCHC was observed, while Withania somnifera and resveratrol co-treatment brought the values towards normal in 14 as well as in 28 days study. Histopathological alterations were observed in liver and kidney in both 14 as well as in 28 days study due to combined exposure of chloropyrifos and malathion, which were attenuated by Withania somnifera and resveratrol co-treatment. The study revealed that combined exposure of chloropyrifos and malathion possessed mild to moderate toxicity potential for hepatic, renal, CNS and haematological profile of adult male rats. Withania somnifera and resveratrol possess potential to sufficiently ameliorate the toxicity produced by combined exposure of chloropyrifos and malathion and as such both do not have any toxic effect at therapeutic doses in adult male Wistar rats.
Subject: Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Theme: Evaluation of withania somnifera and resveratrol in ameliorating the combined subacute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and malathion in rat
These Type: M.V.Sc.
Issue Date: 2018
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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