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Advisor: Pawan Kumar
Title: Light and electron-microscopic studies on the tonsils of oro-nasopharyngeal region of buffalo
Publisher: LUVAS
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Agrotags: null
Keywords: Tonsils,Rreticular epithelium,Lymphoepithelium, FAE, M-cells, vesiculo-vacuolar organelles,Buffalo
Abstract: Light and ultrastructural studies were performed on oro-nasopharyngeal tonsils of 12 adult buffaloes of local mixed breed to elucidate their detail anatomical characteristics. The mucosal surface of oropharyngeal tonsils, and the paraepiglottic tonsil was lined by stratified squamous keratinized to non-keratinized epithelium. The palatine tonsil had well developed external and the internal crypts. The non-keratinized epithelium modified into the reticular epithelium characterized by disrupted basement membrane, dominance of non-epithelial cells and lack of distinct epithelial strata. The non-keratinized epithelium in the palatine tonsil towards the crypts presented the lymphoepithelium which further modified into reticular epithelium. The tonsils of nasopharyngeal region were however lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium having goblet cells. The lymphoepithelium in nasopharyngeal region tonsils modified into follicle associated epithelium (FAE) characterized by reduced epithelial height, absence of goblet and ciliated cells and heavy infiltration of lymphoid cells. The FAE presented flat or dome shaped M-cells associated with lymphocytes and in the tubal tonsil the FAE presented another variant of few domed shaped M-cells not associated with lymphoid tissue. The propria submucosa in all the tonsils presented a common feature comprising of collagen and reticular fibres, lymphoid tissue and glandular tissue. The lymphoid follicles were comprised of the germinal centres surrounded by the corona. The parafollicular area presented the high endothelial venules (HEV’S). The glandular acini were mucous type in the oropharyngeal tonsil, and sero-mucous in the paraepiglottic and the nasopharyngeal tonsil with predominance of the mucous acini. The surface and reticular epithelial cells of the oropharyngeal tonsil were devoid of any PAS activity. However, respiratory epithelial goblet cells of the nasopharyngeal tonsils showed strong PAS activity except the FAE. The mucous acini in all the tonsils exhibited positive reaction for glycogen, acidic and neutral mucosubstances, weakly sulfated mucosubstances, acidic mucopolysaccharides, mucin as well as more than 4% cysteine. The scanning electron microscopy of mucosa of oropharyngeal tonsils and the paraepiglottic tonsil presented folded mucosa of varying shapes, delineated squamous arrangement of cells, microplicae and glandular ducts openings. The microplicae presented both the closed and open type patterns with some having honeycomb-like arrangement. In the nasopharyngeal tonsils the mucosal surface showed dense mat of cilia oriented in different directions. The FAE region comprised of heterogeneous population of microvillus cells, few ciliated cells, goblet cells, brush-like cells and the M-cells. The transmission electron microscope presented ultrastructural details of the different types of epithelial cells of all the tonsils and the underlining lymphoid tissue organization. These epithelial cells presented the organelles including the mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, ribosomes and the tonofilaments. The FAE of nasopharyngeal tonsil presented microvillus cells categorized into different types. The ultrastructural characteristics of the propria submucosa in all the tonsils were similar as described in the light microscopy. The cells of high endothelial venules presented vesiculo-vacuolar organelles (VVO’s). The migration of lymphocytes by both inter-endothelial and transendothelial route through the high endothelial venule was also observed.
Subject: Veterinary Anatomy
Theme: Light and electron-microscopic studies on the tonsils of oro-nasopharyngeal region of buffalo
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2018
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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