Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Advisor: Chattree, Dr. Amit
Publisher: Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences Allahabad – 211007, U.P., India 2018
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Pages: 219p.
Agrotags: null
Keywords: Keywords: Plantago major, phytochemical screening, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, iridoid glycoside-aucubin, antihepatotoxic activity, antiinflammatory activity.
Abstract: Medicinal plants are rich source of biologically active compounds that have disease preventive properties. One such plant Plantago major also possesses disease preventive properties used traditionally in India and all over the world. So there was a need to study the folkloric claim of this plant and therefore the present study was aimed to investigate the antitoxic activity of aerial part extracts of Plantago major, isolated iridoid glycoside and their formulations. The study also examines the phytochemical profile and total phenolic content of different extracts prepared from aerial part of P. major. The aerial part extracts of Plantago major were obtained by successive soxhlet extraction method and water extract by decoction method. Benzene, chloroform, ethanol and methanol were used as solvent for successive extraction. The percentage yield of examined extracts was calculated. The preliminary phytochemical screening of tested extracts was carried out using standard qualitative procedures. Total phenolic content (TPC) was quantitatively estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method and invitro antioxidant activity was conducted by four methods namely 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and reducing power method and was compared to BHT. The antitoxic activity was assessed in terms of antioxidant, antihepatotoxic and antiinflammatory activities. The antihepatotoxic activity of most potent extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) and its formulations were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in Albino rats. Silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) was used as standard drug and 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. per oral dose of plant extracts were selected for the study. The liver protective effect of tested extracts were evaluated by the assessment of biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and histopathological studies of the liver. For assessment of anti-inflammatory activity sub acute model, carrageenan-induced paw oedema was selected. Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg, b.w. p.o.) was used as standard anti-inflammatory drug. The three different doses (300, 600 and 900 mg/kg, b.w.) of most potent extracts were selected for this activity and all the drugs were given orally. The bioactive compound was isolated from methanolic extract by column chromatography and identified on the basis of physical and chemical properties, TLC profile and HPLC method as iridoid glycoside-Aucubin. Then the formulation of isolated compound in variable concentrations (20, 40 and 80 mg/ml) were prepared. These formulations were tested for antihepatotoxic and antiinflammatory activities in rats by above mentioned methods. Among all the extracts, methanolic extract showed highest percentage yield then the water, ethanol, chloroform and benzene extracts respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested extracts revealed that they were rich in secondary metabolite compounds such as carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, fats and oils, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and iridoid glycosides whereas saponins and anthraquinones were absent in all the extracts. The maximum phyto-chemicals were present in methanolic extract as compared to other extracts. The TPC of the aerial part extracts of P. major ranged from 2.33 to 34.41mg TAE/g of dry weight. The TPC results showed that the methanolic extract possess the highest amount of phenolic compounds (34.41 mg TAE/g of dry weight) when compared with benzene, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts. The antioxidant xiv activity results of tested extracts showed concentration dependent radical scavenging activities and reducing power. Among all the extracts, methanolic extract showed greater DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50=139.19g/ml), NO radical scavenging activity (IC50=124.16 g/ml), H2O2 radical scavenging activity (IC50=148.20g/ml) and reducing power (0.643 absorbance at 800μg/ml). The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract is close in magnitude and comparable to that of standard antioxidant compound. The order of activity is in the following manner: BHT > methanol extract > ethanol extract > chloroform extract > benzene extract. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content found indicating that these compounds are probably the antioxidants contributing antioxidant activity. The antihepatotoxic activity results of examined extracts and its formulations showed that both the extracts have dose dependent antihepatotoxic activity. The methanolic extract and its formulation showed significant (p<0.01) liver protective activity, while ethanolic extract and its formulation showed moderate liver protective activity. The liver protective activity of tested extracts and formulations were lower than the standard drug silymarin. The results of biochemical parameters of examined extracts showed decrease in serum enzymes levels (SGOT, SGPT and ALP), total bilirubin, triglycerides, cholesterol and rise in total protein and albumin levels. The activity was also measured by increase in antioxidant enzymes levels of SOD and CAT and the microscopic study of liver tissues induced by CCl4 were moderate to mild in methanol extract and formulation pretreated rats.The antiinflammatory activity results of examined extracts and its formulations showed that methanolic extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) inhibition of paw oedema, 55.55% and 61.11% on 4th hour at the dose of 600 and 900 mg/kg b.w. and dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity. The results showed that isolated compound aucubin and its formulations exhibits significant (p<0.01) and dose dependent liver protective activity against CCl4 induced toxicity in liver. The anti-inflammatory activity results show that isolated compound aucubin and its formulations exhibited significant (p<0.05) and dose dependent activity. Among three concentrations, the aucubin formulation having 80 mg/ml concentration showed higher antihepatotoxic and antiinflammatory activities which were comparable to standard drugs silymarin as well as diclofenac sodium. The present study revealed that Plantago major extracts, isolated compound aucubin and formulations possess significant liver protective and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore these can be used for the treatment of liver and acute inflammatory disorders and are suggested to be used continually as herbal anti-toxic medicine in India and all over the world.
Description: Ph. D. Thesis
Subject: Chemistry
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2018
Appears in Collections:Thesis

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.