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|Advisor:||Dr.V. RAVINDER REDDY|
|Title:||EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF ASHWAGANDHA (Withania somnifera) AND POMEGRANATE (Punica granatum) PEEL EXTRACTS IN BROILER DIET FOR ALLEVIATING HEAT STRESS|
|Abstract:||This study was conducted to evaluate the heat stress alleviating effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract (WSE) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract (PPE) in broiler diets on productive performance, immune response, slaughter variables, mortality, serum biochemical parameters, serum and tissue oxidative stress variables, protein retention and intestinal microbial counts. Three hundred and twenty day old commercial male broiler chicks were randomly divided to eight dietary treatments with eight replications of 5 birds each and reared in battery brooder up to 42 days of age. Broilers were fed on corn-soy based broiler starter (0-3 weeks) and finisher (4-6 weeks) diets. The positive control (PC) diet supplemented with vit-E @ 70mg/kg + Selenium @ 0.15 mg/kg, a negative control (NC) i.e. without vit-E & Se supplementation, remaining 6 treatment group diets were formulated by corn-soy diets with different levels of WSE and PPE, WSE @0.005% (WSE50), WSE @ 0.01% (WSE100), PPE @ 0.005% (PPE50), PPE @ 0.01% (PPE100), combination of 0.005% WSE + 0.005% PPE (WPPE50), combination of 0.01% WSE + 0.01% PPE (WPPE100) for 42 days. At the end of 42 days, the results showed that body weight gain (BWG) were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by various dietary treatment groups. The WSE100 group showed highest BWG (1842g) followed by WPPE50 group (1797g), PPE100 group (1787g), WPPE100 group (1771g), PC group (1759g), WSE50 group (1751g), PPE50 group (1787g) and lowest BWG recorded in NC group (1722g). Supplementation of WSE and PPE alone or in combination at different levels did not have any significant (P>0.05) influence on cumulative feed consumption of broilers during starter and finisher phases and during overall period (0-6 weeks). There is significant (P<0.05) improvement in the feed conversion efficiency on supplementation of WSE and PPE alone or in combination during finisher phase and overall experimental period compared to NC. The breast weight, liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, abdominal fat percent on live weight and RTC were not influenced (P>0.05) by the dietary treatments. The mortality rate was within limits in all dietary treatment groups and no specific outbreak was recorded. The humoral immune response to ND virus at 3 and 6 weeks of age did not showed any significant (P>0.05) improvement on supplementation with WSE and PPE alone or in combination in broilers. No significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in the CMI response to PHA-P among the dietary treatment groups. Results of serum biochemical variables indicated that dietary supplementation with WSE and PPE alone or in combination significantly (P<0.05) reduced serum cholesterol as compared to PC and NC groups. No significant changes were observed in serum total protein concentrations among dietary treatment groups.Dietary supplementation of WSE and PPE alone or in combination significantly (P<0.05) increased the concentrations of serum glutathione reductase (GSHRx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced the lipid peroxidation (LPO) values, while glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and ferric reducing ability of serum (FRAS) levels were unaffected. PPE100 increased the concentrations of GSHRx and reduced the LPO levels compared to other groups. WSE100 increased SOD activity than other groups and comparable to PC group. Dietary supplementation of WSE100 was significantly (P<0.05) reduced the LPO concentrations in liver compared to all other groups. However, no significant (P>0.05) difference was noticed in GSHPx, GSHRx, SOD of liver and GSHRx, GSHPx, LPO and SOD of spleen. No significant difference was found in protein retention by supplementation of WSE and PPE among all dietary groups. At 6 weeks of age, intestinal total viable microbial counts were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by dietary treatments but intestinal E.coli counts were significantly (P<0.05) reduced on diets supplemented with WPPE50 and WSE100 and performed better over NC. High Total phenolic content of WSE (308 mg GAE/g) and PPE (438 mg GAE/g) and DPPH radical scavenging activities of WSE (78.7%) and PPE (77.3%) corroborates the increased performance and antioxidant response. Based on the results it can be concluded that, supplementation of extracts of ashwagandha and pomegranate peel are found to improve growth performance, antioxidant indices, reduce intestinal Escherichia coli counts in broilers during summer season with an average temperature range of 36.8oC±0.25 – 39.7oC±0.25 and Relative humidity of 47 - 74%.|
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis|
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