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Advisor: Adarsh Kumar
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Agrotags: null
Abstract: Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most important vegetable crop grown and consumed all over the country. During 2014-2015, a total of 18.74 million tons of bulbs were produced from an area of 1.15 million hectares in India (NHRDF, 2014). In India, onion is grown in kharif, late kharif and rabi seasons. Traditionally, onion nurseries are prepared and then transplanting is done manually. Manual transplanting on a large commercial scale is labor intensive and expensive. Sometimes delay in transplanting occurs due to high labour requirement and shortage of labour during peak transplanting seasons. Besides the quantum of labour, manual transplanting involves considerable drudgery and human discomfort. Rising labor costs and uncertainty of labor availability has forced some growers to look at the option of mechanical transplanting. Since area under onion crop is increasing and also expected to increase in years to come. In addition to this, morphologically being delicate, perishable and with higher seedling mortality, onion crop was selected to develop a seedling transplanter. In present situation, indigenously developed onion seedling transplanters are not available in India. In view of above investigation, the present study was undertaken to design and develop a tractor operated semiautomatic onion transplanter to mechanize onion transplanting operation. The physical properties of 50, 60 and 70 days old onion seedlings relevant for the design of metering mechanism and prototype transplanting machine were determined. An experimental plug and finger type transplanting mechanisms were designed and fabricated. Soil bin studies were conducted on experimental transplanting mechanisms to study the effect of seedling parameters ie. age of seedlings and machine parameters (speed of operation, height of seedling drop, finger material on plant spacing, planting depth, success of transplanting, furrow closure, filling efficiency and damage). The data observed in soil bin study was analyzed using SAS software to obtain optimum operating conditions and design values for successful transplanting of onion seedlings. A six row prototype onion transplanter was then designed using CAD software “Pro-e Wildfire 4.0” and fabricated based on the findings of soil bin studies and optimum operating conditions and design values obtained. The performance of prototype was tested in field for transplanting onion seedlings. Different performance parameters were calculated along 99 with cost economics of operation for comparison with currently practiced manual method of onion seedling transplanting. The diameter, weight, length and compressive strength of onion seedlings increases with age making them hardy. The obtained information was used in designing and selection of different components and also for doing different adjustments in onion seedling transplanter. In plug metering mechanism, the observed plant spacing was 12.14 to 13.35 cm whereas in finger type metering mechanism it was 16.79 to 19.50 cm. The planting depth in plug type metering mechanism varied from 1.84 to 2.92 cm whereas in finger metering mechanism depth of planting ranged from 2.85 to 3.43 cm. The percent seedling transplanted and percent furrow closure in plug mechanism varied from 76.67 to 100% and 73.33 to 100% respectively and in finger type metering mechanism it ranged from 18.33 to 78.33% and 15 to 73.33% respectively. In plug mechanism, plug filling efficiency ranged from 96.67 to 32.22% and it was 95.28 to 22.5% in finger metering mechanism. In plug mechanism, percent seedling damage ranged from 0 to 17.3% which was lower than 0 to 31.3% in finger type metering mechanism. The performance of plug type metering mechanism was found better and closer to the recommended practices than finger type metering mechanism. Therefore, plug type metering mechanism was selected for development of tractor operated onion seedling transplanter. The average field capacity and field efficiency of developed six row semiautomatic onion seedling transplanter was 0.078 ha/h and 76.53% respectively. The labor requirements in mechanical transplanting was 115.38 man.h/ha as against 400 man.h/ha in manual transplanting. The cost of transplanting for developed transplanter was ₹ 8041.92/ha as against ₹ 12000/ha in manual transplanting. Therefore, a six row semiautomatic onion seedling transplanter may be recommended for use by farmers to reduce transplanting costs, and timely and uniform transplanting of onion seedlings.
Description: T-9414
Subject: Agricultural Engineering
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2016
Appears in Collections:Theses

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