Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/5810025561
Authors: M. HANUMANTH RAO
Editor: Dr.V. RAVINDER REDDY
Title: OPTIMIZATION OF TOASTING PROCESS OF GUAR MEAL AND ITS FEEDING VALUE IN COMMERCIAL BROILER AND LAYER DIETS
Publisher: PVNR TVU
Language: en
Type: Thesis
Pages: 217
Series/Report no.: D;543
Agrotags: null
Abstract: As a part of comprehensive utilization of guar meal (GM) as a potential feed ingredient in poultry diets, the GM (raw GM and GM toasted at various temperature and time durations) was assessed by one in-vitro analysis, three biological broiler (1 to 42d ) feeding trials and one layer (27 to 42 wks of age ) trial. In-vitro chemical analysis of GM revealed that it is a protein (>48 %) rich feed ingredient, contains slightly higher levels (2 to 4 %) of crude protein, but deficient in all essential amino acids except arginine, whose concentration was 75 % higher than soybean meal (SBM). Results also showed that guar meal was a moderate source of energy (2521 kcal/kg), calcium (0.46 %) and total phosphorus (0.59 %). Experiment-I: A biological trial was undertaken in a completely randomized design to study the effect of inclusion of graded levels of commercial GM on the performance and nutrient digestibility in commercial broiler chicken diets and benefit of non inclusion of CGM in juvenile phase. A total of 350 one-day-old broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were reared on wire floor electrically heated battery brooders. Out of the seven dietary treatment groups each treatment had 10 replicates of 5 chicks each. Dietary treatments received iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets, 1st treatment was control diet of Maize-SBM, 2nd , 3rd and 4th treatments were fed control diet during pre-starter phase 1-14 days, later (starter and finisher phase)CGM was incorporated at 6, 12 and 18 %, replacing SBM respectively. In rest 3 treatments (5th, 6th and 7th) CGM was incorporated at 6% during pre- starter phase followed by (starter and finisher phase) incorporation of CGM at 6, 12 and 18 % respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The results showed that body weight gain (BWG) was significantly better at 6 % CGM inclusion and depressed at 12 and 18 % CGM. There was no significant effect of non inclusion of CGM in juvenile phase on BWG; however feed intake did not differ significantly by CGM inclusion but FCR was significantly higher at all inclusion levels of CGM (6, 12 and 18 %). The slaughter parameters (ready-to-cook yield, breast meat, abdominal fat, giblet), nutrient digestibility (energy and protein utilization), serum parameters (serum albumin, protein and cholesterol) did not differ (P>0.05) significantly. However the feed cost incurred per kg live weight gain was higher by CGM inclusion in broiler rations. From the results it is evident that CGM could be incorporated up to 6 % (60 g/kg diet) in broiler diets without affecting growth performance, nutrient utilization and slaughter variables. Experiment-II: The second biological trial was undertaken in a completely randomized design to study the effect of temperature and time of toasting GM on the feeding value of protein source on the performance and nutrient digestibility in commercial broiler chicken. A total of 400 one-day-old broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were allotted to eight dietary treatments (1 control + 7 test diets) in such a way that each treatment had 10 replicates of 5 chicks each. Dietary treatments received iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets containing 0 % GM (control), 10 % raw GM (T2) and 10 % TGM (raw GM toasted at 100⁰C for 15, 30 and 45 minutes as T3, T4 and T5 respectively) similarly 10 % TGM (raw GM toasted at 110⁰C for 15, 30 and 45 minutes as T6, T7 and T8 respectively) replacing SBM in starter (0-21) and finisher (22 to 42 days of age) diets. Results showed that inclusion of TGM up to 10 % in broiler diets significantly depressed the body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). However energy retention, dry matter digestibility, protein retention and slaughter variables (ready-to-cook yield, breast meat, abdominal fat, giblet and pancreas) remained unaffected (P>0.05). Concentration of total protein, albumin and total cholesterol in serum were also not affected (P>0.05), whereas, feed cost incurred per kg live weight gain was comparable to that of control.From the results it is evident that GM (raw or toasted (100⁰C or 110⁰C for 15, 30 and 45 minutes) incorporated up to 10 % (100 g/kg diet) in broiler diets depressed the broiler growth performance. Experiment-III: A third biological trial was undertaken in a completely randomized design to study the effect of temperature and time variation for toasting of guar meal (GM) on the performance and nutrient digestibility at 10 % inclusion in commercial broiler chicken. A total of 440 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 400) were allotted to eleven dietary treatments (1 control + 10 test diets) in such a way that each treatment had eight replicates of 5 chicks each. Dietary treatments received iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets containing 0% GM (control), 10 % raw GM (T2) and 10 % TGM (raw GM toasted at 110⁰C for 10, 20 and 30 minutes as T3, T4 and T5 respectively); similarly 10 % TGM (raw GM toasted at 120⁰C for 10, 20 and 30 minutes as T6, T7 and T8 respectively), while 10% TGM (raw GM toasted at 130⁰C for 10, 20 and 30 minutes as T9, T10 and T11 respectively), replacing SBM in starter (0-21) and finisher (22 to 42 days of age) diets. The results showed that the body weight gain (BWG) improved significantly by inclusion of TGM (110⁰C and 120⁰C for 30 minutes duration) and BWG was depressed in treatment group fed raw GM up to 10 % in broiler diets, feed intake (FI) did not differ significantly and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly lower. However slaughter variables (ready-to-cook yield, breast meat, abdominal fat, giblet and pancreas) remained unaffected (P>0.05). Energy retention was comparable to the control while the dry matter digestibility was significantly better and protein retention was significantly higher (T7 120⁰C/20 min) than control. The concentration of total protein was higher, while albumin was not influenced and total cholesterol in serum was significantly (P>0.05) lower than control, whereas, feed cost incurred per kg live weight gain was significantly lower to that of control. From the results it is evident that GM (toasted at 110⁰C, 120⁰C for 10, 20 and 30 minutes each) could be incorporated up to 10 % (100 g/kg diet) in broiler diets without affecting the broiler growth performance, nutrient utilization and slaughter parameters. Layer trial: A biological trial was undertaken in a completely randomized design to study the effect of supplementation of toasted guar meal (TGM) at graded concentrations with two energy efficiencies of TGM on the performance and egg quality parameters of White Leghorn (WL) layers. A total of 224 layer chickens (Babcock, BV 300) were randomly distributed into 56 replicates with 4 birds per each colony cage (18x17x15 inches) in well ventilated platform 2 tier cage layer house. Seven experimental diets with graded levels of 0, 6, 12 and 18 % and two energy efficiency (50 % and 60 % of GE as ME) of TGM were prepared having similar concentrations of protein and ME. Each diet was fed ad libitum to 8 replicates from 27 to 42 weeks of age. The results showed that the egg production (EP), body weight (BW), feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), mortality, egg quality (egg density, yolk index, yolk color, Haugh unit score, shell weight, shell percentage, shell thickness, shell strength) parameters and serum biochemical profile (albumin, protein and cholesterol) were not affected by incorporating TGM up to 18 % (180 g/kg diet). Whereas, the feed cost incurred per egg was significantly lower at 18 % TGM compared to that of control. From the results of the above study, it is concluded that TGM can be included in WL layer diets up to 18% without affecting performance, egg quality and serum biochemical variables. Based on the overall results of these biological trials, it can be concluded that CGM can be included up to 6 % and TGM up to 10 % in Maize-SBM based broiler diets and up to 18 % in layer diets without affecting the performance and other related variables.
Subject: Poultry Science
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2017-06-19
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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