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Language: en
Type: Thesis
Pages: 205
Series/Report no.: D;520
Agrotags: null
Abstract: As a part of comprehensive utilization of toasted guar meal (TGM) as a potential feed ingredient in poultry diets was assessed by one in-vitro analysis and three biological broiler feeding trials. In-vitro chemical analysis of TGM revealed that it is a protein (>47%) rich feed ingredient, contains slightly higher concentrations (2 to 3%) of crude protein, but is deficient in all essential amino acids except arginine, whose concentration was 75% higher than soybean meal (SBM). Results also showed that guar meal was a moderate source of energy (2453 kcal/kg), calcium (0.46%) and total phosphorus (0.60%). Urease activity of 0.04 ΔpH indicated partial/ complete elimination of trypsin inhibitors due to heat treatment. Experiment-I: A biological trial was undertaken in a completely randomized design to identify the effective dietary inclusion level and feeding value of TGM as an alternative protein source to SBM in commercial broiler chicken diets. A total of 360 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 400) were allotted to six dietary treatments (1 control+5 test diets) in such a way that each treatment had 12 replicates of 5 chicks each. Dietary treatments received iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets containing 0 (control), 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18% of dietary TGM replacing SBM in starter (0-21) and finisher (22 to 42 days of age) diets. Feed intake (FI) did not differ significantly. Results showed that inclusion of TGM up to 12% in broiler diets did not affect the body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), energy retention and performance index score; feed cost incurred per kg live weight gain. Dry matter digestibility, protein retention and slaughter variables (ready-to-cook yield, breast muscle, abdominal fat, giblet and pancreas) remained unaffected (P>0.05). Concentration of total protein, glucose and triglyceride in serum were also not affected (P>0.05), whereas, serum total cholesterol concentration was found higher (P<0.05) in broilers fed diets containing TGM as compared to those fed on SBM control. Antibody titers against ND virus were decreased (P<0.05) and cell mediated immune (CMI) response to PHA-P antigen and percent weights of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius on pre-slaughter weight of bird remained unaffected by feeding graded level of TGM in broiler diets. From the results it was evident that TGM could be incorporated up to 12% (120 g/kg diet) in broiler diets without affecting growth performance, nutrient utilization, slaughter variables and immune status. Experiment-II: The objective of this experiment was to measure the response of broiler chickens to the dietary addition of β-M [36 (57.5 × 106 U) and 72 (115 × 106 U per kg diet) g per 100kg feed] and α-G [22 (176 U) and 44 (352 U per kg diet) g per 100kg diet] in the broiler diets containing TGM at 15%. An experiment in a completely randomized design was conducted on 360 one day-old male broiler chicks in eight dietary treatments with nine replicates having 5 chicks in each. Average BWG and FI decreased (P<0.05) in all TGM test diets (±enzymes) as compared to SBM control diet, but FCR (P>0.05) remained unaffected. However, enzymes addition to TGM based diets proved beneficial than diets without enzymes. Inclusion of β-M and α-G at 115 × 106 and 352 U per kg diet, respectively, (i.e. at 2X level) to TGM based diets was found more effective than at 1X level, furthermore, β-M added groups found more effective than other TGM groups with or without enzymes. As observed in experiment-I, BPIS and energy efficiency decreased (P<0.05) in 15% TGM test diets in comparison with the control group. Feed cost per kg live weight gain, dry matter digestibility and protein efficiency were not influenced by supplementation of enzymes to 15% TGM based diets. The ready-to-cook yields, dressing percent, breast yield, abdominal fat, heart, gizzard and pancreas were not influenced by enzyme supplementation at each level. However, percent weights of liver and giblet on pre-slaughter weight of bird were increased (P<0.05) in α-G supplemented groups. Serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration were remained static and serum total protein concentration decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed 15% TGM test diets compared to the SBM control diet at 41 days. HI titers to ND vaccination, CMI response to PHA-P antigen injection in terms foot pad index and percent relative weights of lymphoid organs were also not influenced by the dietary treatments. Based on the results of this experiment it can be concluded that addition of enzymes either alone or in combination at two levels to 15% TGM diets did not prove beneficial in terms of growth, nutrient utilization and BPIS as compared to control group. Experiment-III: The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementing CAA (Lys, Met, Thr, Try and Val) at graded levels to 15% TGM based diets containing β-M (115 × 106 U) and α-G (352 U) per kg diet, respectively. A total of 250 day-old commercial broiler male chicks were divided into 5 treatments with 10 replications (5 broilers in each) and fed test diets ad-libitum from day one to six weeks of age (starter 0-21 d and finisher 22-42 d). Amino acids were fortified at graded levels (90, 95 and 100%) by maintaining constant ratio in relation to dietary Lys level. As observed in experiment-II, both BWG and FI decreased (P<0.05) and FCR increased (P<0.05) in birds fed on 15% TGM diets as compared to birds on SBM control diet. However, significantly higher BWG (but significantly lower than CD) was observed in broilers fed CAA 90 diet compared to other TGM diets. BPIS, feed cost per kg live weight gain, dry matter digestibility, protein and energy efficiency decreased (P<0.05) similarly as observed for growth parameters. Carcass traits (ready-to-cook yields, dressing percentage and breast yield) decreased (P<0.05); whereas, percent weights of liver and giblet increased (P<0.05) in TGM diets compared to control group. Percent weights of abdominal fat, heart, gizzard and pancreas were not influenced by treatment groups. However, carcass traits were remained unaffected among TGM fed groups. Glucose and total protein concentration in serum was significantly decreased in TGM diets as compared to CD. Serum total cholesterol levels were found significantly increased in TGM diets than control group, whereas, triglycerides remained static. Immune parameters i.e. ND titers and CMI response to PHA-P were not influenced by dietary treatments. Percent weights of spleen and thymus were also not influenced by dietary treatments. Percent weight of bursa of Fabricius was significantly more (P<0.05) in CAA 90 (90% Lys TGM diet) group. Based on results of the experiment it can be concluded that supplementation of CAA in 15% TGM based broiler diets containing β-M and α-G did not improve the growth similar to that of CD group. Based on the overall results of three experiments, it can be concluded that TGM can be included up to 12% in corn-SBM based broiler diets without affecting the performance. However, fortification of 15% TGM based diets with NSP enzymes (β-M and α-G) and CAA (Lys, Met, Thr, Try and Val at graded levels) did not elicit the performance at par with broilers fed the SBM control diet
Subject: Poultry Science
These Type: Ph.D
Issue Date: 2017-01-24
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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