Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/5810009920
Authors: NANDANWAR, ARVIND KUMAR
Advisor: Mishra, Sharad
Title: STUDIES ON EXPOSURE TIME FOR FREEZE BRANDING USING DIFFERENT METALS IN SAHIWAL CATTLE
Publisher: Chhattisgarh Kamdhenu Vishwavidyalaya, Durg
Language: en_US
Type: Thesis
Agrotags: null
Abstract: Identification of animal in livestock enterprise is of immense importance to draw conclusion of their status in production as well as performance. Marking of cattle for identification should involve methods that are easy to read at a distance, easy to apply, permanent, durable and economic. Among the several methods of identification, freeze branding is a method of livestock identification, which is less stressful to animals and has been accepted widely in developed countries. As the ideal animal identification technique should result in minimum amount of pain to the animal, cause little or no skin damage and produce a permanent legible mark visible from a distance of 30 feet or more. The Sahiwal is one of the best dairy breeds in India. The colour of Sahiwal is red therefore the white mark/hair appeared on the skin will remain permanent lifelong. Hence, freeze branding offers a permanent form of identification i.e. easy to read at a greater distance, cause mimimal damage to the hide and is less painful than hot branding. The present investigation was conducted on 80 sahiwal cattle at the Bull Mother Experimental Farm, College of Veterinary Science & A.H., Anjora, Durg. The age of animals ranged from 0 month to above 18 months. With in this range, four age groups were developed viz. 0-6, 6-12, 12-18 and above 18 month age. Immediately after freeze branding, series of events were happened on the animals skin, following branding. 97 In case of 0 to 6 months category, the average time of thawing of skin following freezing were 1.7±0.13, 1.68±0.13 and 1.73±0.14 minutes, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. An average time of 11.73±0.52, 12.98±0.74 and 11.34±0.38 minutes, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals were observed for the outset of oedema. Where, 11 seconds of exposure time were quicker than 9 seconds and 5 seconds of exposure time hence differed significantly (P<0.01). The average time of 23.6 ±0.68, 23.55 ±0.63 and 23.2 ±0.66 hours, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals were observed for persistency of oedema. Where, in brass metal, the time of 9 seconds was significantly different (P<0.05) from 5 and 11 seconds of exposure time. The average days for dryness of skin following freezing were 8.3±0.89, 7.15±0.86 and 8.05±0.68 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals and it can be concluded that the skin dried more quicker (4±0.32 days) in stainless steel metal than copper metal followed by brass. The average time for formation of scab and its persistency were 18.65±0.84, 16.65±1.18 and 18.8±0.81 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. In copper and stainless steel metals, 11 seconds of exposure time differed significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) from rest of the exposure time. The average time of appearance of white hairs on the skin was found to be 45.6±1.96, 46.63±1.97 and 50.93±1.3 days for copper, stainless steel and brass metals, respectively. An average of 72.66±1.86, 71.8±1.98 and 75.33±1.68 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals were observed for complete visibility of white hairs. In brass metal, 7 seconds of exposure time differed significantly (P<0.05) from 5 and 11 seconds of exposure time. 100 per cent legibility was seen in 7 and 9 seconds of exposure 98 time in stainless steel and copper, respectively. Overall, 9 to 11 seconds and 5 to 7 seconds of exposure time can be recommended, respectively for copper and stainless steel metals for the age group of 0 to 6 months. The visibility of white mark starts from score 3 and at score 5 the white mark become instantly recognizable. With the visibility of white mark in score 5, it can be concluded that stainless steel metal performed better than copper metal followed by brass. In case of 6 to 12 months category, the average time of thawing of skin were 1.7±0.15, 1.45±0.1 and 1.3±0.09 minutes, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. Where, copper metal has significant (P < 0.05) effect on the exposure time. The average time for outset of oedema were 12.5 ±1.11, 13.5 ±1.01 and 14.05 ±0.97 minutes, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals and 8, 11 & 14 seconds of exposure time differed significantly (P<0.05) from that of 17 seconds of exposure time using brass metal. The average time of persistency of oedema following freezing were 23.15±0.75, 21.65±0.65 and 21.5±0.77 hours, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. The average time for dryness of skin were 11.35±0.97, 9.6 ±0.86 and 10.75±0.98 days, respectively observed for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. The number of days required for copper metal were significantly (P<0.05) lesser than those observed in 11, 14 and 17 seconds of exposure time. The average time required for formation of scab and its persistency was found to be 20.65±0.94, 19.4±0.73 and 20.3±0.87 days for copper, stainless steel and brass metals, respectively. The difference in 11 and 17 seconds of exposure time in brass metal was significantly different (P<0.05). The average time for appearance of white hairs were 48.33±2.46, 46.78±1.96 and 50.2±1.42 days, respectively for copper, stainless 99 steel and brass metals. The number of days were relatively lesser in 8 seconds of exposure time in copper metal. The average time for complete visibility of white hairs were 76.6±1.20, 74.35±1.31 and 76.26±1.35 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. The legibility of white hairs for copper metal varied from 60 to 100 per cent. All the metals could be recommended for an exposure time ranging from 8 to 11 seconds. In case of stainless steel and brass metals the legibility varies from 40 to 100 per cent and 60 to 100 per cent, respectively. 25, 15, 45 and 15 per cent animals had scored 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively in copper metal. In case of stainless steel metal 30, 10, 35, 20 and 5 per cent animals, respectively scored 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. In case of brass metal 20, 20, 45 and 15 per cent animals, respectively scored 1, 2, 3 and 4. In case of 12 to 18 months category, the mean times of thawing of skin were 1.63±0.1, 1.4±0.11 and 1.73±0.08 minutes, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals and 15 seconds of exposure time for copper differed significantly (P<0.05). The mean time for outset of oedema following freezing were 13.68±1.06, 13.05±1.01 and 12.55±1.09 minutes, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. All metals have shown highly significant (P<0.01) effect of exposure time in the development of oedema. The mean times for persistency of oedema were 21.95±0.73, 20.4±1.14 and 19.95±0.78 hours, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. On an average of 9.2±1.13, 9.45±0.79 and 8.3±0.69 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals were required for dryness of skin. The 12 and 15 seconds of exposure time differed significantly (P<0.01) from the exposure time of 18 and 21 seconds in copper metal, required lesser time. The average time for formation of scab and 100 its persistency on the skin was found to be 20.8±1.03, 19.75±1.12 and 20.15±1.09 days for copper, stainless steel and brass metals, respectively. The average time for appearance of white hairs on skin were 58.09±1.34, 54.9±3.87 and 58.9±2.44 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. The average time for complete visibility of white hairs in present investigation was found to be 75.72±1.02, 76.3±2.33 and 78.45±1.72 days for copper, stainless steel and brass metals, respectively. The chi square values were 0.601, 8.8 and 2.219, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals and 18 seconds of exposure time could be appropriate to obtain 100 and 80 per cent legible white hairs, respectively in stainless steel and brass metal. Overall, 10 per cent animals contained visible hairs when copper metal was used, which is higher than that of stainless steel (5 per cent) and brass (5 per cent). In case of above 18 months category, the average time of thawing of skin were 1.78±0.09, 1.73±0.12 and 1.63±0.1 minutes, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. The 17 seconds of exposure time differed significantly (P<0.05) from that of 20 and 23 seconds. The average time for outset of oedema was found to be 17.55 ±0.82, 17.9 ±0.69 and 17.4 ±0.72 minutes for copper, stainless steel and brass metals, respectively. The average time for persistency of oedema for above 18 months age groups was found to be 19.7±0.84, 19.6±0.78 and 18.9±1.04 hours for copper, stainless steel and brass metals, respectively. The average days required for dryness of skin in present investigations were 10.9±0.6, 8.8±0.56 and 8.7±0.68 days for copper, stainless steel and brass metals, respectively. The average time for scab formation and its persistency of skin following freezing were 22.05±0.96, 17.95±0.9 and 101 18.85±1.11 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. Brass metal was earlier (16±1.76 at 17 seconds) and, hence, significantly (P<0.05) different from that of 26 seconds of exposure time. The average times of appearance of white hairs on skin were 58±2.32, 56.77±3.82 and 58.7±2.56 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. The average time for complete visibility of white hairs were 80±1.72, 80.44±1.00 and 80.14±1.12 days, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. The chi square values were 2.414, 0.601 and 2.414, respectively for copper, stainless steel and brass metals. The declined trend of improvement in visibility of white brand with increase in score points was noticed in copper. Similar trend was noticed in stainless steel metal. However, overall efficiency of stainless steel metal was better than copper and brass as 7.5 per cent animals scored 5. Further, in stainless steel metal 5 per cent animals scored 5 at 6 to 12 months age group and only 25 per cent animals scored 5 in 0 to 6 months age group. The blood parameter finding results, increase in lymphocytes and monocytes at significant level (P<0.05). The neutrophils and basophils were also significantly (P<0.01) higher after freeze branding. However, above results were within the normal range and could not give indication of stress associated with freeze branding.
Subject: Livestock Production and Management
Theme: STUDIES ON EXPOSURE TIME FOR FREEZE BRANDING USING DIFFERENT METALS IN SAHIWAL CATTLE
These Type: M.V.Sc.
Issue Date: 2011
Appears in Collections:Theses

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Arvind1.pdf
  Until 9999-01-01
STUDIES ON EXPOSURE TIME FOR FREEZE BRANDING USING DIFFERENT METALS IN SAHIWAL CATTLE769.19 kBAdobe PDFView/Open Request a copy


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.