Rajiv Kumar
An investigation was carried out on “Morpho-biochemical and molecular characterization of China aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees]” at Division of Floriculture & Medicinal Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru 560 089, Karnataka during the years 2015-16 and 2016-17. The objectives of the investigation was to characterize the China aster genotypes based on DUS test guidelines, anthocyanin and flavonoids profiling in different coloured groups, molecular genotyping and to assess the impact of diversity in heterosis. China aster belongs to the family Asteraceae and is native of Northern China. In India, it is commercially grown as annual flower for both cut and loose flower, which is used for flower decoration, preparation of bouquets and garlands. A total of 42 China aster genotypes were characterized for 21 traits by adopting DUS test guidelines developed by PPV & FRA, New Delhi. Out of 15 visually assessed DUS characters, 2 were monomorphic, 4 dimorphic and 9 polymorphic, and 6 measurable traits showed polymorphism. Six traits were identified for grouping of genotypes viz., plant height, plant type, flower head diameter, shape and colour of inner side of ray floret in outer row and type of flower head. Forty-two genotypes were evaluated for vegetative growth, flowering, yield and postharvest life during 2015-16 and 2016-17, revealed that the genotypes IIHRCC39 and IIHRI69-2 found promising for long stalk length (49.10 cm and 47.50 cm, respectively), whereas, IIHRG13 and IIHRJ3 for vase life (9.50 and 9.35 days, respectively) and these can be used for cut flower. The genotypes IIHRCC42 and Arka Poornima recorded highest weight of flowers per plant (235.21g and 231.62g, respectively), were found promising for loose flower yield. Among 15 different coloured genotypes ranged from red to dark purple, highest total anthocyanins and flavonoids were recorded in Arka Violet Cushion (469.36 mg/100g) and Matsumoto Yellow (243.01 mg/100g), respectively. The LCMS/MS analysis for four anthocyanins, revealed maximum cyanidin (2,582.64 µg/100g) and delphinidin (5,223.54 µg/100g) in Arka Violet Cushion and pelargonidin (236.44 µg/100g) in Matsumoto Red. The LC-MS/MS analysis for 12 flavonoids, revealed that apigenin was present in maximum quantity irrespective of the genotypes. The highest apigenin (26.61 × 103 µg/100 g) was recorded in Matsumoto Pink, catechin (28.43 µg/100 g) in Matsumoto Yellow and naringenin (459.34 µg/100 g) in IIHRE10. SSR fingerprints were generated using 26 primers generated clear and bright amplicons for detected 133 alleles. All the 26 SSR loci showed polymorphism in genotypes. The dendrogram was generated, grouped the genotypes into five major groups, by using pooled binary data from 133 alleles of 42 genotypes. Six lines, five testers and 30 cross combinations were evaluated for economic traits. Line 6 (Matsumoto White) and Tester 2 (Phule Ganesh Purple) proved good general combiners for most of the traits. A significant heterosis over commercial check Arka Kamini was obtained for all the economic traits. The crosses L2 x T3 (Matsumoto Red x IIHRJ3-2), L5 x T1 (Matsumoto Scarlet x Phule Ganesh Violet), L5 x T4 (Matsumoto Scarlet x IIHRG13), L6 x T1 (Matsumoto x Phule Ganesh Violet) and L6 x T5 (Matsumoto x Local White) exhibited overall best performance for economic traits such as plant height, plant spread, flower stalk length, flower head diameter, 100 flower weight and vase life as SCA were also the best cross combinations for exploitation of heterosis over commercial check cv. Arka Kamini.
Division of Floriculture and Medicinal Crops ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru
Size 8.33 MB