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An impact study of male migration on role of women in rural society.
Migration is a form of movement from one location to another. Migration of the male from rural areas to the urban areas is a common phenomenon and is on the rise. Migration is the barometer of changing socio-economic condition at the state, national and international level. Migration is essential for development. Migration occurs mainly due to differences in the levels of the living and employment opportunities between the rural areas and the urban growth centres. Migration from the state is almost exclusively that of the male population and is embedded in the lives and life choices of the people under the given circumstances. Male migration from the rural areas may make heavy demand on women who are left behind and are required to shoulder all household responsibilities and production activities. It has been found that the decision making pattern of women of all category of households have also changed due to male out- migration. Women have been more active in absence of their husbands who have migrated to other places. Women of out- migrant nuclear household enjoy more freedom and actively participate in all decisions related to home in general and farming & livestock in particular.Male migration has been quite a catalyst in enhancing women's mobility. Women of migrants family have greater physical mobility and find increased opportunities for dealing with various activities.However the changed circumstances of women in the migrant families have made them more confident and independent in managing their lives.Keeping in the view of above facts, the present study is undertaken with the following objectives: Objectives 1. To know the socio-economic profile of the women heading migrants and non-migrants family. 2. To study the impact of migration on role and status of women in family and society. 3. To understand the constraints faced by migrants family. 4. To assess the factors influencing the role and status of women in migrants and non-migrants family. Methodology The study on impact of male migration on role of women in rural society has been conducted in the Samastipur District of Bihar state.There are altogether 20 blocks in Samastipur district. Out of which two blocks Pusa and Kalyanpur were selected purposively. From the two selected blocks two villages from each block were selected. A total number of 4 villages were selected purposively from the selected blocks. Fifteen migrants family from Dighra and 15 non-migrants family from BirauliKhurd were selected from Pusa block.From Kalyanpur block 15 sample respondents from migrants family were selected from Ladaura and 15 non-migrants family selected from Fulhara.Thus total 30 respondents from each of migrants and non-migrants family were randomly selected, further making a total of sixty(60) sample from the villages. Major findings The study reveals that majority of migrants family respondents were of middle age group(36.66%)and belonged to schedule caste(40%)followed by non-migrants respondents (43.33%) were old age group and belonged to backward caste (53.33%) migrants and non-migrants both respondents were illiterate(70%) and (53.33%) respectively and both having nuclear families(63.33%) and (60%) respectively. migrants and non-migrants both respondents were having marginal land (53.33%) and (63.33%) respectively, migrants family respondents had up to 2 children whereas non-migrants family respondents had 3-5 children.Majority of migrants family respondents (60%) were having income in the range of 50,001-1,00,000/- and non-migrants family respondents (63.33%) were having income in the range of up to 50,000/-.Migrants family respondents were engaged in labour work i.e. 63.33 per cent .Whereas (60%) non-migrants family respondents were engaged in agriculture work.Majority of migrants (50%) were having income in the range of Rs. 50,001-1, 00,000/ and they had migrated in search of job/better opportunities. Majority (26.66%) of migrants were engaged in construction work, (56.66%) were contract labourer, (66.66 %) were working 6-8 hours daily and 53.33 per cent worker had get monthly payment.(60%) respondents had communicated with migrants weekly and cent percent respondents using mobile/telephone as mode of communication. The migrants family respondents had participated more in household as well as farm and allied activities. They have become more involved in taking decisions. Women who live in nuclear families make more household decisions than women in joint families.Migrants family women have greater physical mobility. They had gone alone outside the home to carry out the various activities. The socio-economic variables such as family size, family type and number of children had negative impact on the decision-making role of migrants family women whereas family type had negative and social participation had positive impact on the decision-making role of non-migrants women. Caste, number of children and family size had negative impact on the migrants family women’s mobility whereas family income, family occupation and social participation had positive impact on women’s mobility. The extent of participation of non-migrants family was affected by family occupation.Among social and personal constraints, increased work burden (86.66%), lack of education (76.66%) and lack of land –holding were major constraints faced by migrants family women. Unavailability of remittances when necessary was major economic constraints and feeling of anxiety due to absence of male member was also a major psychological constraints faced by the respondents of migrants family. Conclusion Based on findings of this research migration of men has brought about several changes in the work women do-within and outside their household.Womenof migrants family had taken all household responsibilities besides farm and other activities on their shoulder. They had more managerial ability than the women of non-migrants family. They had more involved in decision-making as well as they had more physical mobility.
Publisher and Place
Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur
Home Science Extension Education
Male migration and rural women.
Krishikosh Institutional Repository